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Robert Runkel

Hydrologist (Res)

Contact Info


Short Biography

EDUCATION

Bachelor of Science, Summa Cum Laude, 1985, Computer Science and Environmental Studies, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Master of Environmental Management, 1987, Water Resources, Duke University: Monte Carlo Analysis of the Surface Water Component for Land Disposal Restriction Determinations

Doctor of Philosophy, 1993, Environmental Engineering, University of Colorado: Development and Application of an Equilibrium-based Simulation Model for Reactive Solute Transport in Small Streams

EMPLOYMENT

1987-1989 Hydrologist, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Detroit Lakes, Minnesota

1989-1992 Research Engineer, University of Colorado, Center for Advanced Decision Support in Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), Boulder, Colorado

1992-Present Research Hydrologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado

MISC.

Associate Editor, Water Resources Research, Jan. 2006–present

Member, American Geophysical Union

Member, Society for Freshwater Science


GOOGLE SCHOLAR (click to view)


SOFTWARE

OTIS http://water.usgs.gov/software/OTIS

Runkel, R.L., 1998, One dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS): A solute transport model for streams and rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation Report 98-4018, 73 p.

Runkel, R.L., 2000, Using OTIS to model solute transport in streams and rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-138-99, 4 p.

OTEQ — http://water.usgs.gov/software/OTEQ

Runkel, R.L., 2010, One-Dimensional Transport with Equilibrium Chemistry (OTEQ): A Reactive Transport Model for Streams and Rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Book 6, Chapter B6, 101 p.

LOADESThttp://water.usgs.gov/software/loadest

Runkel, R.L., Crawford, C.G., and Cohn, T.A., 2004, Load Estimator (LOADEST): A FORTRAN Program for Estimating Constituent Loads in Streams and Rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Book 4, Chapter A5, 69 p.







PRIMARY PUBLICATIONS
(list of additional publications available upon request)

Runkel, R.L., and Chapra, S.C., 1993, An efficient numerical solution of the transient storage equations for solute transport in small streams: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 1, p. 211- 215.

Runkel, R.L., and Chapra, S.C., 1994, Reply to "Comment on An efficient numerical solution of the transient storage equations for solute transport in small streams by Dawes and Short": Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 10, p. 2863-2865.

Runkel, R.L., and Bencala, K.E., 1995, Chapter 5: Transport of reacting solutes in rivers and streams, in Singh, V.P., editor: Environmental Hydrology,  Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 137-164.

Runkel, R.L., 1996, Solution of the advection-dispersion equation: continuous load of finite duration: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 122, no. 9, p. 830-832.

Runkel, R.L., Bencala, K.E., Broshears, R.E., and Chapra, S.C., 1996, Reactive solute transport in streams 1. Development of an equilibrium-based model: Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 2, p. 409-418.

Runkel, R.L., McKnight, D.M., Bencala, K.E., and Chapra, S.C., 1996, Reactive solute transport in streams 2. Simulation of a pH-modification experiment: Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 2, p. 419-430.

Runkel, R.L., McKnight, D.M. and Andrews, E.D., 1998, Analysis of transient storage subject to unsteady flow: Diel flow variation in an Antarctic stream:  Journal of North American Benthological Society (now known as Freshwater Science), v. 17, no. 2, p. 143-154.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., McKnight, D.M. and Bencala, K.E., 1999, Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface complexation approach for trace metal sorption: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 12, p. 3829-3840.

Runkel, R.L., and Kimball, B.A., 2002, Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 36, no. 5, p. 1093-1101.

Runkel, R.L., 2002, A new metric for determining the importance of transient storage: Journal of the North American Benthological Society (now known as Freshwater Science), v. 21, no. 4, p. 529-543.

Runkel R.L., McKnight, D.M., and Rajaram, H., 2003, Modeling hyporheic zone processes: Advances in Water Resources, v. 26, no. 9, p. 901-905.

Runkel, R., 2003, Review of 'Ecohydrology, Darwinian Expression of Vegetative Form and Function, by Peter S. Eagleson': Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 39, no. 4, p. 987-988.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Walton-Day, K., and Verplanck, P.L., 2005, Geochemistry of Red Mountain Creek, Colorado, under low-flow conditions, August 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5101, 78 p.

Runkel, R.L., 2007, Toward a transport-based analysis of nutrient spiraling and uptake in streams: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, v. 5, p. 50-62.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Walton-Day, K., and Verplanck, P.L., 2007, A simulation-based approach for estimating premining water quality: Red Mountain Creek, Colorado: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 9, p. 1899-1918.

Runkel, R.L., Bencala, K.E., Kimball, B.A., Walton-Day, K., and Verplanck, P.L., 2009, A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado: Hydrological Processes, v. 23, p. 3319-3333.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Steiger, J.I., and Walton-Day, K., 2009, Geochemical data for upper Mineral Creek, Colorado, under existing ambient conditions and during an experimental pH modification, August 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 442, 41p.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Walton-Day, K., Verplanck, P.L., and Broshears R.E., 2012, Evaluating Remedial Alternatives for an Acid Mine Drainage Stream: A Model Post Audit: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 46, no. 1, p. 340-347. DOI: 10.1021/es2038504

Runkel, R.L., Walton-Day, K., Kimball, B.A., Verplanck, P.L., and Nimick, D.A., 2013, Estimating instream constituent loads using replicate synoptic sampling, Peru Creek, Colorado, Journal of Hydrology, v. 489, p. 26-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.02.031

Broshears, R.E., Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., McKnight, D.M., and Bencala, K.E., 1996, Reactive solute transport in an acidic stream: Experimental pH increase and simulation of controls on pH, aluminum and iron: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 10, p. 3016-3024.

Chapra, S.C., and Runkel, R.L., 1999, Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 125, no. 5, p. 415-419.

Kimball, B.A., Runkel, R.L., and Gerner, L.J., 2001, Quantification of mine-drainage inflows to Little Cottonwood Creek, Utah, using a tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study: Environmental Geology (now known as Environmental Earth Sciences), v. 40, p. 1390-1404.

McKnight, D.M., Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 2001, pH dependence of iron photoreduction in a Rocky Mountain stream affected by acid mine drainage: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, p. 1979-1992.

Kimball, B.A., Runkel, R.L., Walton-Day, K., and Bencala, K.E., 2002, Assessment of metal loads in watersheds affected by acid mine drainage by using tracer injection and synoptic sampling: Cement Creek, Colorado, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 17, no. 9, p. 1183-1207.

Gooseff, M.N., McKnight, D.M., Runkel, R.L., and Vaughn, B.H., 2003, Determining  long time- scale hyporheic zone flow paths in Antarctic streams: Hydrological Processes, v. 17, no. 9, p. 1691-1710.

Scott, D.T., Gooseff, M.N., Bencala, K.E., and Runkel, R.L., 2003, Automated calibration of a stream solute transport model: implications for interpretation of biogeochemical parameters: Journal of the North American Benthological Society (now known as Freshwater Science), v. 22, no. 4, p. 492-510.

Scott, D.T., Runkel, R.L., McKnight, D.M., Voelker, B.M., Kimball, B.A., and Carraway, E.R., 2003, Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids: Water Resources Research, v. 39, no. 11, 1308.

Gooseff, M.N., McKnight, D.M., Runkel, R.L., and Duff, J.H., 2004, Denitrification and hydrologic transient storage in a glacial meltwater stream, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 49, no. 5, p. 1884-1895.

Gooseff, M.N., McKnight, D.M., and Runkel, R.L., 2004, Reach-Scale cation exchange controls on major ion chemistry of an Antarctic glacial meltwater stream: Aquatic Geochemistry, v. 10, p. 221-238.

Keefe, S.H., Barber, L.B., Runkel, R.L., Ryan, J.N., McKnight, D.M., and Wass, R.D., 2004, Conservative and reactive solute transport in constructed wetlands: Water Resources Research, v. 40, W01201.

Keefe, S.H., Barber, L.B., Runkel, R.L., and Ryan, J.N., 2004, Fate of volatile organic compounds in constructed wastewater treatment wetlands: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 38, no. 7, p. 2209-2216.

McKnight, D.M., Runkel, R.L., Tate, C.M., Duff, J.H., and Moorhead, D.L., 2004, Inorganic N and P dynamics of Antarctic glacial meltwater streams as controlled by hyporheic exchange and benthic autotrophic communities: Journal of the North American Benthological Society (now known as Freshwater Science), v. 23, no. 2, p. 171-188.

Gooseff, M.N., Bencala, K.E., Scott, D.T., Runkel, R.L., and McKnight, D.M., 2005, Sensitivity analysis of conservative and reactive stream transient storage models applied to field data from multiple-reach experiments: Advances in Water Resources, v. 28, p. 479-492.

Miller, M.P., McKnight, D.M., Cory, R.M., Williams, M.W., and Runkel, R.L., 2006, Hyporheic exchange and fulvic acid redox reactions in an alpine stream/wetland ecosystem, Colorado Front Range: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, p. 5943-5949.

Schemel, L.E., Cox, M.H., Runkel, R.L., and Kimball, B.A., 2006, Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado: Hydrological Processes, v. 20, p. 2727-2743.

Kimball, B.A., Bianchi, F., Walton-Day, K., Runkel, R.L., Nannucci, M., and Salvadori, A., 2007, Quantification of changes in metal loading from storm runoff, Merse River (Tuscany, Italy): Mine Water and the Environment, v. 26, no. 4, p. 209-216.

Schemel, L.E., Kimball, B.A., Runkel, R.L., and Cox, M.H., 2007, Formation of mixed Al-Fe colloidal sorbent and dissolved-colloidal partitioning of Cu and Zn in the Cement Creek- Animas River Confluence, Silverton, Colorado: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 7, p. 1467- 1484.

Caruso, B.S., Cox, T.J., Runkel, R.L., Velleux, M.L., Bencala, K.E., Nordstrom, D.K., Julien, P.Y., Butler, B.A., Alpers, C.N., Marion, A., and Smith, K.S., 2008, Metals fate and transport modelling in streams and watersheds -- state of the science and USEPA workshop review: Hydrological Processes, v. 22, p. 4011-4021.

Cox, T.J., and Runkel, R.L., 2008, Eulerian-Lagrangian Numerical Scheme for Simulating Advection, Dispersion, and Transient Storage in Streams and a Comparison of Numerical Methods: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 134, no. 12, p. 996-1005.

Borrok, D.M., Wanty, R.B., Ridley, W.I., Lamothe, P.J., Kimball, B.A., Verplanck, P.L., and Runkel, R.L., 2009, Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 7, p. 1270-1277.

Kimball, B.E. (Bryn), Mathur, R., Dohnalkova, A.C., Wall, A.J., Runkel, R.L., and Brantley, S.L., 2009, Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73, p. 1247-1263.

Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 2009, Spatially detailed quantification of metal loading for decision making: Metal mass loading to American Fork and Mary Ellen Gulch, Utah: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 28, p. 274-290.

Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., Bove, D.J., Plumlee, G.S., and Runkel, R.L., 2009, Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 2, p. 255-267.

Keefe, S. H., Daniels (Thullen), J.S., Runkel, R.L., Wass, R.D., Stiles, E.A., and Barber, L.B., 2010, Influence of hummocks and emergent vegetation on hydraulic performance in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland: Water Resources Research, v. 46, W11518, doi:10.1029/2010WR009512

Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 2010, Evaluating remediation alternatives for mine drainage, Little Cottonwood Creek, Utah, USA: Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 60, no. 5, p. 1021-1036, doi: 10.1007/s12665-009-0240-0.

Kimball, B.A., Runkel, R.L., and Walton-Day, K., 2010, An approach to quantify sources, seasonal change, and biogeochemical processes affecting metal loading in streams: Facilitating decisions for remediation of mine drainage: Applied Geochemistry, v. 25, no. 5, p. 728-740, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.02.005

Kimball, B.A., Runkel, R.L., Wanty, R.B., and Verplanck, P.L., 2010, Reactive solute-transport simulation of pre-mining metal concentrations in mine-impacted catchments: Redwell Basin, Colorado, USA: Chemical Geology, v. 269, p. 124-136, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.05.024

Walton-Day, K., Runkel, R.L., and Kimball, B.A., 2012, Using spatially detailed water-quality data and solute-transport modeling to support Total Maximum Daily Load Development: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 48, no. 5, p. 949-969, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2012.00662.x

Koch, J.C., Runkel, R.L., Striegl, R., and McKnight, D.M., 2013, Hydrologic controls on the transport and cycling of carbon and nitrogen in a boreal catchment underlain by continuous permafrost, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, v. 118, no.2, p. 698-712. DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20058


Water Quality of Surface Waters

Image of Current Focus for Water Quality of Surface Waters

Areas of Research

• Modeling the fate and transport of solutes in surface waters, with emphasis on the interplay between biogeochemical processes and hydrologic transport.

• Quantification of physical transport mechanisms using stream tracer techniques. 

• Characterization and treatment of Acid Mine Drainage.


Contact Information

Robert Runkel
3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127
Boulder, CO 80303
runkel@usgs.gov
303-541-3013
303-541-3084 - Fax
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