USGS Professional Pages
Laura Norman is a Research Physical Scientist in the Western Geographic Science Center who obtained her doctorate in Watershed Resources, minoring in Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis, from the University of Arizona in Tucson. Her Masters was in Watershed Management, also from the U of A, and her Bachelors from Oregon State University, in Forestry. Dr. Norman has been with the USGS since 1998, working primarily along the US-Mexico Border, examining the fate and transport of industrial, urban, and mining pollution in surface waters, their sources and sinks, and relationship with human populations. The focus of her work is investigating strategic planning for sustainable development.
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Norman, Laura M., Villarreal, Miguel L., Niraula, Rewati, Meixner, Thomas, Frisvold, George, Labiosa, William. (2013). "Framing Scenarios of Binational Water Policy with a Tool to Visualize, Quantify and Valuate Changes in Ecosystem Services." Water 5, no. 3: 852-874. (Also available online at http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/5/3/852).
Norman, Laura M., Shuster, Rudy, and Parcher, Jean. (2013). Chapter 6. Challenge Theme 4. People in the Borderlands; In Updike, R.G., Ellis, E.G., Page, W.R., Parker, M.J., Hestbeck, J.B., and Horak, W.F., eds., 2012, United States–Mexican Borderlands—Facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1380, 318 p., 1 pl.. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1380/).
Villarreal, M. L., Norman, L. M., Boykin, K. G., & Wallace, C. S. A. (2013). Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 0(0), 1–14. doi:10.1080/21513732.2013.770800. (Also available online at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21513732.2013.770800).
Niraula, R., Norman, L. M., Meixner, T., & Callegary, J. (2012). Multi-gauge Calibration for modeling the Semi-Arid Santa Cruz Watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border Area Using SWAT. Air, Soil and Water Research, 41. doi:10.4137/ASWR.S9410 (Also available online at http://www.la-press.com/multi-gauge-calibration-for-modeling-the-semi-arid-santa-cruz-watershe-article-a3162).
Norman, L.M., Caldeira, F., Callegary, J., Gray, F., O’ Rourke, M. K., Meranza, V., & Rijn, S. (2012). Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. Water Quality, Exposure and Health. doi:10.1007/s12403-012-0067-x (Also available online at http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s12403-012-0067-x).
Norman, L. M., Feller, M., & Villarreal, M. L. (2012). Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(3), 225–235. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.06.015 (Also available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204612002101).
Norman, L.M., Villarreal, M. L., Lara-Valencia, F., Yuan, Y., Nie, W., Wilson, S., Amaya, G., and Sleeter, R. (2012). Mapping socio-environmentally vulnerable populations access and exposure to ecosystem services at the U.S.–Mexico borderlands. Applied Geography, 34(0), 413–424. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.01.006 (Also available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143622812000082).
Villarreal, M.L., Norman, L.M., and Labiosa, W.B. (2012). Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool. pp. 427-434 In R. Seppelt, A.A. Voinov, S. Lange, D. Bankamp (Eds.), International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs) 2012 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Pathways and Visions under Uncertainty, Sixth Biennial Meeting, Leipzig, Germany. ISBN: 978-88-9035-742-8. (Also available online at http://www.iemss.org/sites/iemss2012//proceedings/B1_0440_Villarreal_et_al.pdf).
Villarreal, M.L., Norman, L.M., Wallace, C.S.A., and van Riper, Charles, III, (2011). A multitemporal (1979–2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz watershed: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1131, 26 p. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1131/).
Villarreal, Miguel L., Norman, L. M., Webb, R. H., Boyer, D. E., & Turner, R. M. (2011). Unravelling long-term vegetation change patterns in a binational watershed using multitemporal land cover data and historical photography (pp. 101–104). IEEE. doi:10.1109/Multi-Temp.2011.6005058
Norman, Laura, (2010). Urbanization and Environmental Health in Arizona Colonias; In Donelson, A. J., & Esparza, A. X. The colonias reader: economy, housing, and public health in US-Mexico border colonias. Univ of Arizona Pr.
Norman, Laura M., Callegary, J., van Riper, C., & Gray, F. (2010). The Border Environmental Health Initiative; investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, 2010-3097, 2. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3097/).
Norman, L. M, Huth, H., Levick, L., Shea Burns, I., Phillip Guertin, D., Lara‐Valencia, F., & Semmens, D. (2010). Flood hazard awareness and hydrologic modelling at Ambos Nogales, United States–Mexico border. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 3(2), 151–165. doi:10.1111/j.1753-318X.2010.01066.x (Also available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1753-318X.2010.01066.x/abstract).
Norman, L.M., Levick, L., Guertin, D.P., Callegary, J., Quintanar Guadarrama, J., Zulema Gil Anaya, C., Prichard, A., Gray, F., Castellanos, E., Tepezano, E., Huth, H., Vandervoet, P., Rodriguez, S., Nunez, J., Atwood, D., Patricio Olivero Granillo, G., and Octavio Gastelum Ceballos, F., (2010). Nogales flood detention study: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1262, 112 p. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1262/).
Norman, Laura M., Villarreal, Miguel, Wallace, Cynthia S.A., Gil Anaya, Claudia Zulema, Diaz Arcos, Israel and Gray, Floyd, (2010). A High-Resolution Land-Use Map: Nogales, Sonora, Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1156, 28 p. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1156/).
Gu, A., Gray, F., Eastoe, C. J., Norman, L. M., Duarte, O., & Long, A. (2008). Tracing ground water input to base flow using sulfate (S, O) isotopes. Ground Water, 46(3), 502–509. (Also available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18331327).
Norman, L.M., Guertin, D. P., & Feller, M. (2008). A Coupled Model Approach to Reduce Nonpoint-Source Pollution Resulting from Predicted Urban Growth: A Case Study in the Ambos Nogales Watershed. Urban Geography, 29(5), 496–516. (Also available online at http://bellwether.metapress.com/content/270q78x7855pv737/).
Norman, Laura M., Hirsch, D. D., & Ward, A. W. (ed.s). Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border—Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1322, 63 p. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1322/).
Norman, L.M., and Wallace, C.S.A., 2008, Mapping land use/land cover in the Ambos Nogales study area: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1378, 42 p. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1378/).
Norman, Laura M., Donelson, A., Pfeifer, E., & Lam, A. H. (2006). Colonia Development and Land Use Change in Ambos Nogales, United States - Mexican Border. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1112, 121. (Also available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1112/).
Norman, L., Wissler, C., Guertin, D. P., & Gray, F. (2002). Digital Soils Survey Map of the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-324, 24. (Also available online at http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of02-324/).
Brady, L.M., Gray, F., Wissler, C.A. and Guertin, D.P., (2001). Spatial variability of sediment erosion processes using GIS analysis within watersheds in a historically mined region, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 01-267. (Also available online at http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of01-267/).
My Science Topics
My USGS Science Strategy AreasA Water Census of the United States
Climate Variability & Change
The Role of Environment and Wildlife in Human Health
Understanding Ecosystems & Predicting Ecosystems Change
Strategic Planning for Sustainable Development
According to a climate-change-model consensus, the most severely affected region of the United States will stretch across the Southwest from southern California to west Texas and intensifies even more over northern Sonora, Mexico. Limited rainfall, reliance on ground water, high rates of population growth and poverty combine with a complex binational, bicultural environment to place unique pressures on human and ecosystem health in the US-Mexico border. Managing shared water resources requires cooperation in assessing and understanding these resources and their impact on human and ecosystem health. Urban development, mineral contamination, irrigation, sewage effluent, and global climate change all have the potential to alter the stability of the fragile systems in the borderland region.
Inequitable distributions of environmental burdens including pollution and industrial facilities have been identified along the U.S.-Mexico border. Environmental goods like nutritious food, clean air and water, parks, recreation, health care, education, and transportation are not always available to borderland residents. Participation in the decision-making processes is a key component of environmental justice that can be addressed using a decision support tool and an ecosystem services approach. In 1994, Executive Order 12898 mandated that federal agencies make environmental justice part of their mission, by focusing on the human health and environment relationship that exists in lower socio-economic and high minority communities.
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