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James Winton

Supervisory Research Microbiologist

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Short Biography

I serve as Chief of the Fish Health Section at the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center in Seattle, Washington and head a team of scientists, technicians, post-doctoral researchers, graduate students and visiting scientists working to improve methods for the detection of fish pathogens, determine factors affecting the epidemiology of fish diseases, and develop novel control strategies for reducing losses among both hatchery-reared and wild fish. I am also an Affiliate Professor in the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington where I serve on departmental or graduate student committees and teach the occasional lecture. I have served as: President of the Fish Health Section of the American Fisheries Society, member of the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Journal of Fish Diseases, and Journal of Applied Ichthyology, and member of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the American Type Culture Collection, the USDA Aquaculture Technical and Scientific Committee, and the Fish Disease Commission of the World Organization for Animal Health. Significant awards include the Department of Interior Meritorious Service Award (1999), American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section S. F. Snieszko Distinguished Service Award (2000) and the Department of Interior Distinguished Service Award (2006). I am an author of more than 150 scientific publications.

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Publications last 5 years                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Purcell, M. K., S. E. LaPatra, J. C. Woodson, G. Kurath and J.R. Winton. 2010. Early viral replication and induced or constitutive immunity in rainbow trout families with differential resistance to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Fish and Shellfish Immunology 28:98-105.

LaPatra, S.E., K.P. Plant, S. Alcorn, V. Ostland and J. Winton. 2010. An experimental vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Fish Diseases 33:143-151.

VHSV Expert Panel and Working Group (Gustafson, L.L., K.H. Amos, R.S. Bakal, M.J. Blair, D.A. Bouchard, P.R. Bowser, P.G. Egrie, S.K. Ellis, M. Faisal, K.A. Garver, C. Giray, A.E. Goodwin, N.L. House, M.J. Kebus, K.C. Klotins, S.E. LaPatra, G.D. Marty, P.L. Merrill, A.D. Noyes, N.J. Olesen, S.M. Saksida, M. Snow, S. St-Hilaire, F.C. Uhland, P. Vennerstrom, B.A. Wagner, J.V. Warg, G.E. Whelan and J.R. Winton. VHS working group authors include A.A. Barker, N. Bruneau, G.A. Karreman, K.C.  Klotins and S.M. Tomlinson). 2010. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV IVb) risk factors and association measures derived by expert panel. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 94:128-139.

Rasmussen, C., M.K. Purcell, J.L. Gregg, S.E. LaPatra, J.R. Winton and P.K. Hershberger. 2010. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region reveals a novel clade of Ichthyophonus sp. from rainbow trout. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 89:179-183.

Hershberger, P., J. Gregg, C. Grady, R. Collins and J. Winton. 2010. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring. Progress in Marine Ecology 400:187-193.

Hershberger, P.K., J.L. Gregg, C.A. Grady, R.M. Collins and J.R. Winton. 2010. Susceptibility of three stocks of Pacific herring to viral hemorrhagic septicemia. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 22:1-7.

Bain, M.B., E.R. Cornwell, K.M. Hope, G.E. Eckerlin, R.N. Casey, G.H. Groocock, R.G. Getchell, P.W. Bowser, J.R. Winton, W.N. Batts, A. Cangelosi and J.W. Casey. 2010. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10156. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010156

Walker, P.J. and J.R. Winton. 2010. Emerging virus diseases of fish and shrimp. Veterinary Research 41:51, doi:10.1051/vetres/2010022.

Winton, J., W. Batts, P. deKinkelin, M. LeBerre, M. Bremont and N. Fijan. 2010. Current lineages of the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line are contaminated with fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, cells. Journal of Fish Diseases 33:701-704.

Peterman R.M., D. Marmorek, B. Beckman, M. Bradford, N. Mantua, B.E. Riddell, M. Scheuerell, M. Staley, K. Wieckowski, J.R. Winton and C.C. Wood. 2010. Synthesis of evidence from a workshop on the decline of Fraser River sockeye. June 15-17, 2010. A Report to the Pacific Salmon Commission, Vancouver, B.C., 123 pp. + 35 pp. of appendices.

Hershberger, P.K., B.K. van der Leeuw, J.L. Gregg, C.A. Grady, K.M. Lujan, S.K. Gutenberger, M.K. Purcell, J.C. Woodson, J.R. Winton and M.J. Parsley. 2010. Amplification and transport of an endemic fish disease by an introduced species. Biological Invasions 12:3665-3675.

Hershberger, P.K., J.L. Gregg, C.A. Grady, L. Taylor and J.R. Winton. 2010. Chronic and persistent viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infections in Pacific herring. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 93:43-49.

Grady, C.A., J.L. Gregg, R.M. Collins, J.R. Winton and P.K. Hershberger. 2011. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Journal of Fish Diseases 34:3-12.

Batts, W, S. Yun, R. Hedrick and J. Winton. 2011. A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). Virus Research 158:116-123.

Thompson, T.M., W.N. Batts, M. Faisal, P. Bowser, J.W. Casey, K. Phillips, K.A. Garver, J. Winton and G. Kurath. 2011. Emergence of Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:29-43.

Kurath, G. and J. Winton. 2011. Complex dynamics at the interface between wild and domestic viruses of finfish. Current Opinion in Virology 1:73-80.

Hershberger, P.K., J.L. Gregg, C.A. Grady, S.E. LaPatra and J.R. Winton. 2011. Passive immunization of Pacific herring against viral hemorrhagic septicemia. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 23:140-147.

Hershberger, P.K., J.L. Gregg, C.A. Grady, L. Hart, S.E. Roon and J.R. Winton. 2011. Factors controlling the early stages of viral hemorrhagic septicaemia epizootics: low exposure levels, virus amplification, and fish-to-fish transmission. Journal of Fish Diseases 34:893-899.

Cornwell, E.R., G.E. Eckerlin, R.G. Getchell, G.H. Groocock, T.M. Thompson, W.N. Batts, R.N. Casey, G. Kurath, J.R. Winton, P.R. Bowser, M.B. Bain and J.W. Casey. 2011. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from two fish species at two sites in Lake Superior. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 23:207-217.

Woodson, D., K. Dello, L. Flint, R. Hamilton, R. Neilson and J. Winton 2011. Chapter 6. Climate change effects in the Klamath Basin. Pp. 123-149, In: Thorsteinson, L., S. VanderKooi and W. Duffy (eds), Proceedings of the Klamath Basin Science Conference, Medford, Oregon, February 1-5, 2010. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1196, 312p.

Purcell, M.K., K.J. Laing and J.R.Winton. 2012. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses. Viruses 4:140-166.

Beaulaurier, J., N. Bickford, J.L. Gregg, C.A. Grady, A. Gannam, J.R. Winton and P.K. Hershberger. 2012. Susceptibility of Pacific herring to viral hemorrhagic septicemia is influenced by diet. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 24:43-48.

Faisal, M., M. Shavalier, R.K. Kim, E.V. Millard, M.R. Gunn, A.D. Winters, C.A. Schultz, A. Eissa, M.V. Thomas, M. Wolgamood, G.E. Whelan and J. Winton. 2012. Spread of the emerging viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus strain, genotype IVb, in Michigan, USA. Viruses 4:734-760.

Batts, W.N., A.E. Goodwin and J.R. Winton. 2012. Genetic analysis of a novel nidovirus from fathead minnows. Journal of General Virology 93:1247-1252.

Cornwell, E.R., G.E. Eckerlin, T.M. Thompson, W.N. Batts, R.G. Getchell, G.H. Groocock, G. Kurath, J.R. Winton, R.N. Casey, J.W. Casey, M.B. Bain and P.R. Bowser. 2012. Predictive factors and viral genetic diversity for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. Journal of Great Lakes Research 38:278-288.

Glenn, J.A., E.J. Emmenegger, C.A. Grady, S.R. Roon, J.L. Gregg, C.M. Conway, J.R. Winton and P.K. Hershberger. 2012. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in Pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 24:195-200. 

Bright, P.R., H.T. Buxton, L.S. Balistrieri, L.B. Barber, F.H. Chapelle, P.C. Cross, D.P. Krabbenhoft, G.S. Plumlee, J.M. Sleeman, D.E. Tillitt, P.L. Toccalino and J.R. Winton. 2013. U.S. Geological Survey environmental health science strategy - Providing environmental health science for a changing world: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1383–E, 43 p.

Hershberger, P.K., M.K. Purcell, L.M. Hart, J.L. Gregg, R.L. Thompson, K.A. Garver and J.R. Winton. 2013.  Influence of temperature on viral hemorrhagic septicemia (Genogroup Iva) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valeciennes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 44: 81-86.

Olson, W., E. Emmenegger, J. Glenn, C. Simchick, J. Winton and F. Goetz. 2013. Expression kinetics of key genes in the early innate immune response to Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb infection in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 41:11-19.

Debing, Y., J. Winton, J. Neyts and K. Dallmeier. 2013. Cutthroat trout virus as a surrogate in vitro infection model for testing inhibitors of hepatitis E virus replication. Antiviral Research 100:98-101.

Hershberger, P., L. Rhodes, G. Kurath and J. Winton. 2013. Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea. Fisheries 38:402-409.

Olson, W., E. Emmenegger, J. Glenn, J. Winton and F. Goetz. 2013. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) strain IVb from the Great Lakes. Journal of Fish Diseases 36:711-719.

Purcell, M.K., R.L. Thompson, K.A. Garver, L.M. Hawley, W.N. Batts, L. Sprague, C. Sampson and J.R. Winton. 2013. Universal reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 106:103-115.

Kurath, G., J.C. Jolley, T.M. Thompson, D. Thompson, T.A. Whitesel, S. Gutenberger and J.R. Winton. 2013. Ammocoetes of Pacific lamprey are not susceptible to common fish rhabdoviruses of the US Pacific Northwest. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 25:274-280.

Phelps, N.B.D., S.K. Mor, A.G. Armien, W. Batts, A.E. Goodwin, L. Hopper, R. McCann, T.F.F. Ng, C. Puzach, T. B. Waltzek, E. Delwart, J. Winton and S.M. Goyal. 2014. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel picornavirus from baitfish in the USA. PLoS ONE 9:e87593.

Purcell, M.K., J.J. Hard, K.G. Neely, L.K. Park, J.R. Winton and D.G. Elliott. 2014. Genetic variation in bacterial kidney disease (BKD) susceptibility in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon and its progenitor population from the Puget Sound. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 26:9-18.

Winton, J.R. and P.K. Hershberger. 2014. Viral erythrocytic necrosis. Chapter 2.7 In: Suggested Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Certain Finfish and Shellfish Pathogens, FHS Blue Book 2014 ed., Fish Health Section, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Emmenegger, E.J., J.A. Glenn, J.R. Winton, W.N. Batts, J.L. Gregg and P.K. Hershberger. 2014. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii). Veterinary Microbiology 174:16-26.

Amos K., L. Gustafson, J. Warg, J. Whaley, M. Purcell, J. Rolland, J. Winton, K. Snekvik, T. Meyers, B. Stewart, J. Kerwin, M. Blair, J. Bader and J. Evered. 2014. U.S. response to a report of infectious salmon anemia virus in western North America. Fisheries 39:501-506.

Kurath, G., J.R. Winton, O.B. Dale, M.K. Purcell, K. Falk, and R.A. Busch. 2014. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Journal of Fish Diseases, Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014, DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12323.

Hahn, C.M., L.R. Iwanowicz, R.S. Cornman, C. M. Conway, J.R. Winton and V.S. Blazer. 2015. Characterization of a novel hepadnavirus in the White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Journal of Virology. Article first published online: 16 September 2015. doi:10.1128/JVI.01278-15.

Purcell, M.K., C.L. McKibben, S. Pearman-Gillman, D.G. Elliott and J.R. Winton. 2015. Effects of temperature on Renibacterium salmoninarum infection and transmission potential in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases. Doi:10.1111/jfd.12409

Emmenegger, E.J., G. Sanders, C. Conway, F. Binkowski, J. Winton and G. Kurath. 2016. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring viremia of carp virus. Aquaculture 450:273-282.

Purcell, M.K., S. Pearman-Gillman, R.L. Thompson, J.L. Gregg, L.M. Hart, J.R. Winton, E.J. Emmenegger and P.K. Hershberger. In press. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.

Kennedy, D.A., G. Kurath, I.L. Brito, M.K. Purcell, A.F. Reed, J.R. Winton and A.R. Wargo. In press. Potential drivers of virulence evolution in aquaculture. Evolutionary Applications. 

My USGS Science Strategy Areas

Understanding Ecosystems & Predicting Ecosystems Change

The Role of Environment and Wildlife in Human Health

Climate Variability & Change

Aquatic animal health

Contact Information

James Winton
6505 NE 65Th Street
Seattle, WA 98115
206-526-6654 - Fax
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