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Jonathan Caine

Research Geologist

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Short Biography

Jonathan Saul Caine is a Research Geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey.  His work is focused on characterization of fault zones, fracture networks, and fluid flow in the Earth’s upper crust.  He combines structural geology, hydrogeology, and detailed field studies to characterize fault zone architecture and permeability structure; fault rock textures and deformation mechanisms; conduct direct fault rock dating; and fault and fracture network related fluid flow as it pertains to groundwater supply, mineral deposits, hydrocarbon migration, environmental geochemistry of hydrothermally altered and complexly deformed crystalline-rock aquifer systems, particularly in alpine watersheds.  Caine also works closely with graduate students and colleagues at the University of Colorado, Boulder and the Colorado School of Mines.  He received his B.A and M.A. in Geology from S.U.N.Y, New Paltz (1986 and 1991) and his Ph.D. in Geology from the University of Utah (1999) with concentration in Structural Geology and Hydrogeology.  Caine's work has been conducted in the northeastern Appalachains, the Basin and Range, east Greenland, the southern Rocky Mountains, and the Rio Grande rift. 

 

 





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Publications

Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Kimball, Briant A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Runkel, Robert L.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Adams, Monique; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.; Fey, David L., 2008. Ground- and Surface-Water Chemistry of Handcart Gulch, Park County, Colorado, 2003-2006. Geological Survey (U.S.) Open-File Report 2007-1020, vi, 31 p. [Link]

Sanford, W. E.; Caine, J. S.; Wilcox, D. A.; McWreath, H. C.; Nicholas, J. R., 2006. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey. Circular 1293, vi, 21 p. [Link]

Caine, Jonathan Saul; Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Bove, Dana J.; Kahn, Katherine Gurley; Ge, Shemin, 2006. Well construction information, lithologic logs, water level data, and overview of research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado: an alpine watershed affected by metalliferous hydrothermal alteration. Open-File Report 2006-1189, iv, 13 p. [Link]

Caine, Jonathan Saul, 2006. Questa Baseline and Premining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico. Professional Paper 1729, v, 37 p. [Link]

Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric , 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico. Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5245, 46 p. [Link]

Bossong, Clifford R.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Stannard, David I.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stevens, Michael R.; Heiny-Dash, Janet S., 2003. Hydrologic conditions and assessment of water resources in the Turkey Creek watershed, Jefferson County, Colorado, 1998-2001. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4034, 140 p., 45 figs. [Link]

Caine, Jonathan Saul, 2003. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 6: preliminary brittle structural geologic data, Questa mining district, southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico. Open-File Report 2003-280, 24 p. [Link]

Caine, Jonathan Saul, 2001. Fracture network, fault zone, and geologic data collected from the Turkey Creek watershed, Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2001-416, 46 p. [Link]

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Caine, J.S., and Wilson, A.B., 2011, The hydrogeology of the San Juan Mountains, in, Blair, R., and Bracksieck, G., editors, The Eastern San Juan Mountains: University Press of Colorado, p. 79–98.

Caine, J.S., Bruhn, R.L., and Forster, C.B., 2010, Internal Structure, Fault Rocks, and Inferences Regarding Deformation, Fluid Flow, and Mineralization in the Seismogenic Stillwater Normal Fault, Dixie Valley, Nevada: Journal of Structural Geology, doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2010.03.004 

Ball, L.B., Ge, S., Caine, J.S., Revil, A., and Jardani, A., 2010, Constraining fault-zone hydrogeology through integrated hydrological and geoelectrical analysis: Hydrogeology Journal, 11 p., doi: 10.1007/s10040-010-0587-z

Caine, J.S. and Minor, S.A., 2009, Structural and geochemical characteristics of faulted sediments and inferences on the role of water in deformation, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 121, n. 9/10, p. 1325-1340, doi: 10.1130/B26164.1

Caine, J.S., and Wilson, A.B., in press, The hydrogeology of the San Juan Mountains, south western Colorado, in, Blair, R., and Bracksieck, G., editors, The Eastern San Juan Mountains: University of Colorado Press, 37 manuscript pp.

Klein, T.L., Church, S.E., Caine, J.S., Schmidt, T.S., and DeWitt, E.H., 2008, Central Colorado Assessment Project—Application of Integrated Geologic, Geochemical, Biologic, and Mineral Resource Studies; U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 08-3084, 4 pp.

Caine, J.S., Manning, A.H., Verplanck, P.L., Bove, D.J., Kahn, K.G., and Ge, S., 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado – An Alpine Watershed Affected by Metalliferous Hydrothermal Alteration: Chapter I in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey, Circular 2008-1328, p. 50-57.

Kahn, K.G., Ge, S., Caine, J.S., Manning, A.H., 2008, Characterization of the shallow groundwater system in an alpine watershed: Handcart Gulch, Colorado: Journal of Hydrogeology: v. 16, pp. 103-121, DOI: 10.1007/s10040-007-0225-6

Manning, A.H. and Caine, J.S., 2008, Developing a Conceptual Model of Ground-Water Flow in an Alpine Watershed: Chapter J in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey, Circular 2008-1328, p. 58-62.

Manning, A.H., and Caine, J.S., 2007, Groundwater noble gas, age, and temperature signatures in an alpine watershed: Valuable tools in conceptual model development, Water Resources Research, v. 43, W04404, doi:10.1029/2006WR005349

Caine, J.S., Nelson, E.P., Beach, S.T., and Layer, P.W., 2006, Structural Fabrics, Mineralization, and Laramide Kinematics of the Idaho Springs-Ralston Shear Zone, Colorado Mineral Belt and Central Front Range Uplift: The Mountain Geologist, Special Issue on the Structural Geology of the Colorado Front Range, v. 43, n. 1, pp. 1-24.

Grauch, V.J.S., Hudson, M.R., Minor, S.A., and Caine, J.S., 2006, Along-strike variation in magnetic anomalies related to intrasedimentary faults:  A case study from the Rio Grande Rift, USA: Exploration Geophysics, v. 37, pp. 372-378.

Sanford, W.E., Caine, J.S., Wilcox, D.A., McWreath, H.C., Nicholas, J.R., 2006, Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1293, 28 pp.

Caine, J.S., Manning, A.H., Verplanck, P.L., Bove, D.J., Kahn, K.G., and Ge, S., 2006, Well Construction Information, Lithologic Logs, Water Level Data, and Overview of Research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado: An Alpine Watershed Affected by Metalliferous Hydrothermal Alteration: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1189, 14 pp.

Caine, J.S., 2006, Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 2006-1729, 37 pp.

Caine, J.S., Minor, S.A., and Hudson, M.R., 2004, On the lack of geochemical anomalies associated with faulting in poorly lithified, siliciclastic Santa Fe group sediments, NM, in Hudson, M.R., ed., Geologic and Hydrogeologic Framework of the Española Basin – Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Española Basin Workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1093, p. 26.

Ludington, S., Plumlee, G., Caine, J.S., Bove, D.J., Holloway, J., and Livo, E., 2004, Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the Red River watershed, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5245, 46 pp.

Caine, J.S., 2003, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 6; preliminary brittle structural geologic data, Questa mining district, southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-0280, 24 pp.

Caine J.S., and Tomusiak, S.R.A., 2003, Brittle Structures and their role in controlling porosity and permeability in a complex Precambrian crystalline-rock aquifer system in the Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, p. 1410-1424.

Caine, J.S., 2003, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 6; preliminary brittle structural geologic data, Questa mining district, southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, OFR 03-0280, 24 p.

Bossong, C.R., Caine, J.S., Stannard, D.I., Flynn, J.L., Stevens, M.R., Heiny-Dash, J.S., 2003, Hydrologic conditions and assessment of water resources in the Turkey Creek watershed, Jefferson County, Colorado, 1998-2001: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations, WRI 03-4034, 140 p.

Minor, S.A., Hudson, M.R., and Caine, J.S., 2003, Regional survey of fault zone structural properties and cementation patterns in the northern Albuquerque basin, NM, in Hudson, M.R., ed., Geologic and Hydrogeologic Framework of the Española Basin – Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Española Basin Workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-369, p. 5.

Caine, J.S., 2001, Fracture network, fault zone, and geologic data collected from the Turkey Creek watershed, Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report, OFR 01-0416, 6 p.

Caine, J.S., Evans, J.P., and Forster, C.B., 2000, Characterization and modeling of fluid flow in fault and fracture zones: The reality and the idealized: Geological Society of America Short Course Manual and U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, OFR 00-464a, 254 p.

Caine, J.S., 2000, Characterization and modeling fluid flow in the Genoa Fault Zone, Carson Valley, Nevada: Geological Society of America Short Course Field Trip Guide and Exercises, Geological Society of America Short Course Manual and U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, OFR 00-464b, 21 p.

Caine, J. S. and Forster, C. B., 1999, Fault zone architecture and fluid flow: Insights from field data and numerical modeling: in Haneberg, W.C., Mozley, P. S., Moore, J. C. and Goodwin, L. B., editors, Faults and sub-surface fluid flow in the shallow crust: AGU Geophysical Monograph 113, p. 101-127.

Caine, J. S., 1999, The architecture and permeability structure of brittle fault zones, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 134 p.

Seront, B., Wong, T-f., Caine, J.S., Forster, C.B., Bruhn, R.L., and Fredrich, J.T., 1998, Laboratory Characterization of Hydromechanical Properties of a Seismogenic Normal Fault System:  Journal of Structural Geology, v. 20, n. 7, p. 865-881.

Caine, J.S., Evans, J.P., and Forster, C.B., 1996, Fault Zone Architecture and Permeability Structure:  Geology, v. 24, p. 1025-1028.

Caine, J.S., Coates, D. R., Timofeeff N. P., Davis, W. D., 1991, Hydrogeology of the Northern Shawangunk Mountains:  New York State Geological Survey Open File Report #1g806 and in-house report to the Mohonk Preserve Inc., 72 p. and 6 maps.

Caine, J.S., 1991, Melange fabrics of the northern Appalachians: [Master's thesis], State University of New York, College at New Paltz, New Paltz, N. Y., 208 p.

 

 




                           

My Science Topics


Science Topic
Subtopic
Natural Resourcesenergy resources
Geologic Processesfaulting
Environmental Issuesabandoned mines and quarries
Geologic Processesrock deformation
Earth Characteristicsgeologic structure
Natural Resourcesgeothermal resources
Natural Resourcesmineral resources
Natural Resourceswater resources
Natural Resourceswell drilling
Water Resourcesaquifers
Water Resourcesdrainage basins
Water Resourcesground water
Water Resourceswater use



My USGS Science Strategy Areas

Energy & Minerals for America's Future

A Water Census of the United States

A National Hazard, Risk, and Resilience Assessment Program

Characterization of Fault Zones, Fracture Networks, and Fluid Flow

Fault zones are distinctive mechanical and hydrologic heterogeneities in the Earth's upper crust. Characterization of their physical properties involves detailed mapping at a variety of scales; kinematic and mechanical analyses; fracture network data collection and modeling; and sampling for microstructural evidence of deformation mechanisms, geochemistry, petrophysics, and determination of age using argon geochronology.  Fault zone characterization is important for understanding a number of geological processes that ultimately control the formation and sustainable use of a number of resources such as groundwater, metallic mineral deposits, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy, and for understanding earthquake processes.  


Hydrogeology in Complexly Deformed Crystalline-Rock Watersheds Affected by Metallic Mineral Deposits

Numerous alpine watersheds in the intermountain west are impacted by natural and mine-related acid rock drainage.  These areas are critical headwater regions at the top of the hydrologic cycle where groundwater is recharged, ecosystems are sustained, and sensitivity to climate change is high.  Many such watersheds contain unmined mineral occurrences composed primarily of pyrite with numerous trace metals toxic to aquatic biota.  The USGS Handcart Gulch Research watershed along the Continental Divide in central Colorado is an example site typical of many mineral deposit impacted sites (Please see http://crustal.usgs.gov/projects/Handcart_Gulch/index.html more information).  It is unique because of a set of deep and shallow groundwater wells, a stream gauge, a meteorological station, and extensive time series data sets used to conduct integrated studies of processes involved with the liberation, transport, and fate of naturally occurring acid-rock drainage and the monitoring of climate change in such environments.  Commonly, such watersheds are underlain by complexly deformed crystalline rocks where the occurrence, storage, and flow of ground water is poorly understood.  These environments are also characterized by high to extreme hydraulic gradients and heterogeneous networks of fractures and faults that control the ground-water flow system and contaminant transport.  Integrating geological, hydrological, geochemical, water age, temperature and geophysical data in a series of numerical flow models, we find that groundwater flow at the watershed scale can be conceptualized using a relatively simple equivalent porous media approach.  We also find that groundwater comprises a significant component of discharge to the trunk stream, about 37 percent of the total annual stream flow.  The work to date suggests that in spite of low bulk permeability and various geologic complexities, hydrologic contributions from fractured crystalline bedrock rock should be carefully considered when evaluating alpine ground-water flow systems.

 


Contact Information

Jonathan Caine
West 6th Ave. & Kipling St., DFC Bldg. 20
Lakewood, CO 80225-0046
jscaine@usgs.gov
303-236-1822
303-236-1425 - Fax
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