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Jayne Belnap

RESEARCH ECOLOGIST

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Short Biography

Jayne Belnap has been a scientist with the Department of Interior since 1987. She received her two undergraduate degrees (in biology and natural history) from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1980; her Masters of Science (Ecology Department) from Stanford University in 1983; and her PhD (Botany and Range Department) from Brigham Young University in 1991. Her dissertation explored the effects of coal-fired power plants on the physiological functioning of biological soil crusts and rock lichens. Over the past 20 years, she has published 105 peer-reviewed articles and books on soil crusts that include a BLM technical reference (co-authored with 3 other BLM scientists) and the only comprehensive book available on the topic. She is recognized by scientists around the globe as one of the world's authorities on soil crusts. Dr. Belnap has been invited by many governments to train their scientists in soil crust ecology, including those of South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Mongolia, China, Siberia, Australia, and Iceland. She travels extensively throughout the U. S., training BLM, NPS, USFS, BIA, DoD, and DOE staff and managers on management of soil crusts. She is past Chair of the Soil Ecology chapter of the Ecological Society of America, as well as the Past President of the Soil Ecology Society. 


 



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 1.            Concilio, A. L., Loik, M. E., and Belnap, J. In press, Global change effects on Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae) at its high-elevation range margin. Global Change Biology. 

2.            Darby, B. J., Kuske, C. R., Neher, D. A., Belnap, J., Housman, D. C., In press, Interaction of temperature and moisture on activity, survival, and community composition of desert soil biota.  Functional Ecology.

3.            Fleishman, E., Belnap, J., Cobb, N., Enquist, C., Ford, K., MacDonald, G., Pellant, M., Schoennagel, T., Schmit, L., Schwartz, M., van Drunick, S., Westerling, A., Keyser, A., and Lucas, R., In press, Natural ecosystems. In G. Garfin, A. Jardine, R. Merideth, M. Black, and J. Overpeck, editors. Assessment of climate change in the Southwest United States: a technical report prepared for the U.S. National Climate Assessment. Southwest Climate Alliance, Tucson, Arizona.

4.            Li, J., Okin, G. S., Herrick., J. E., Belnap, J., Miller, M. E., Vest, K., Draut, A. E., In press,  Modeling wind erosion on rangelands in the United States: Application and model validation. Geophysical letters.

5.            Steven, B., Gallegos-Graves, L.V., Yeager, C. M., Belnap, J., Evans, R. D., Kuske, C. R., In press, 2012, Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2. Environ Microbiol (accepted with minor revision)

6.            Yeager, C. M., Kuske, C. R., Carney, T. D., Johnson, S. L., Ticknor, L. O., Belnap, J., In press, 2012, Response of biological soil crust diazotrophs to season, altered summer precipitation and year-round increased temperature in field plots of the Colorado Plateau, USA. Frontiers Terrest Microbiol (accepted with revision)

7.            Belnap, J., 2012, Biogeochemistry: Unexpected uptake: Nature Geosci, v. 5, p. 443-444.

8.            Belnap, J., Ludwig, J. A., Wilcox, B. P., Betancourt, J. L., Dean, W. R. J., Hoffmann, B. D., and Milton, S. J., 2012, Introduced and Invasive Species in Novel Rangeland Ecosystems: Friends or Foes?: Rangeland Ecology & Management.

9.            Belnap, J., Wilcox, B. P., Van Scoyoc, M. V., and Phillips, S. L., 2012, Successional stage of biological soil crusts: an accurate indicator of ecohydrological condition: Ecohydrology.

10.        Chamizo, S., Cantón, Y., Domingo, F., and Belnap, J., 2012, Evaporative losses from soils covered by physical and different types of biological soil crusts: Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8421.

11.        Coe, K. K., Belnap, J., Grote, E. & Sparks, J., 2012, Physiological ecology of the desert moss syntrichia caninervis after ten years exposure to elevated CO2: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance. Physiologia Plantarum 144(4), 346-356

12.        Coe, K. K., Belnap, J., and Sparks, J. P., 2012, Precipitation-driven carbon balance controls survivorship of desert biocrust mosses: Ecology, v. 93, p. 1626-1636.

13.        Coe, K. K., Sparks, J. P., & Belnap., J., 2012. Ecophysiology of soil crust mosses in dryland systems. In Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration: Photosynthesis of Bryophytes and Early Land Plants. David Hanson & Steve Rice, Eds. Govindjee & Sharkey, Series Eds. Springer, Dordrecht.

14.        Johnson, S. L., Kuske, C. R., Carney, T. D., Housman, D. C., Gallegos-Graves, L. V., and Belnap, J., 2012, Increased temperature and altered summer precipitation have differential effects on biological soil crusts in a dryland ecosystem: Global Change Biology, v. 18, p. 2583-2593.

15.        McCluney, K. E., Belnap, J., Collins, S. L., González, A. L., Hagen, E. M., Nathaniel Holland, J., Kotler, B. P., Maestre, F. T., Smith, S. D., and Wolf, B. O., 2012, Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change: Biological Reviews, v. 87, p. 563-582.

16.        Munson, S. M., Webb, R. H., Belnap, J., Andrew Hubbard, J., Swann, D. E., and Rutman, S., 2012, Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region: Global Change Biology, v. 18, p. 1083-1095.

17.        Peters, D., Belnap, J., Ludwig, J., Collins, Scott L., Paruelo, J., Hoffman, M. T., and Havstad, Kris M., 2012, How To Be General, Yet Specific: The Conundrum of Rangeland Science in the 21st Century: Rangeland Ecology & Management.

18.        Pointing, S. B., and Belnap, J., 2012, Microbial colonization and controls in dryland systems: Nat Rev Micro, v. 10, p. 551-562.

19.        Reed, S. C., Coe, K. K., Sparks, J. P., Housman, D. C., Zelikova, T. J., and Belnap, J., 2012, Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility: Nature Clim. Change, v. advance online publication.

20.        Turnbull, L., Wilcox, B. P., Belnap, J., Ravi, S., D'Odorico, P., Childers, D., Gwenzi, W., Okin, G., Wainwright, J., Caylor, K. K., and Sankey, T., 2012, Understanding the role of ecohydrological feedbacks in ecosystem state change in drylands: Ecohydrology, v. 5, p. 174-183.

21.        Wertin, T., Phillips, S., Reed, S., and Belnap, J., 2012, Elevated CO2 did not mitigate the effect of a short-term drought on biological soil crusts: Biology and Fertility of Soils, p. 1-9.

22.        Belnap, J., 2011, Biological Phosphorus Cycling in Dryland Regions, in Bünemann, E. K. e. a., ed., Phosphorus in Action:  Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, Volume 26: Berlin, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p. 371-406.

23.        Belnap, J., Munson, S. M., and Field, J. P., 2011, Aeolian and fluvial processes in dryland regions: the need for integrated studies: Ecohydrology, v. 4, p. 615-622.

24.        Bowling, D. R., Grote, E. E., and Belnap, J., 2011, Rain pulse response of soil CO2 exchange by biological soil crusts and grasslands of the semiarid Colorado Plateau, United States: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, p. G03028.

25.        Darby, B., Housman, D. C., Neher, D., and Belnap, J., 2011, Few apparent short-term effects of elevated soil temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation on the abundance and taxonomic diversity of desert soil micro- and meso-fauna: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v. 43, p. 1474-1481.

26.        Gundersen, L. C. S., Belnap, J., Goldhaber, M., Goldstein, A., Haeussler, P.J., Ingebritsen, S.E., Jones, J.W., Plumlee, G.S., Thieler, E.R., Thompson, R.S., and Back, J.M., 2011, Geology for a changing world 2010-2020:  Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy, in Survey, U. S. G., ed., Volume 1369, p. 68 p.

27.        Kuske, C. R., Yeager, C. M., Johnson, S., Ticknor, L. O., Belnap, J., 2011. Response and resilience of soil biocrust bacterial communities to chronic physical disturbance in arid shrublands  ISME Journal (2011) 1–12

28.        Munson, S. M., Belnap, J., and Okin, G. S., 2011, Responses of wind erosion to climate-induced vegetation changes on the Colorado Plateau: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, p. 3854-3859.

29.        Munson, S. M., Belnap, J., Schelz, C. D., Moran, M., and Carolin, T. W., 2011, On the brink of change: plant responses to climate on the Colorado Plateau: Ecosphere, v. 2, p. art68.

30.        Okin, G. S., Bullard, J. E., Reynolds, R. L., Ballantine, J. A., Schepanski, K., Todd, M. C., Belnap, J., Baddock, M. C., Gill, T. E., and Miller, M. E., 2011, Dust: Small-Scale Processes With Global Consequences: EOS Transactions, v. 92, p. 241-248.

31.        Riginos, C., Herrick, J. E., Sundaresan, S. R., Farley, C., and Belnap, J., 2011, A Simple Graphical Approach to Quantitative Monitoring of Rangelands: Rangelands, v. 33, p. 6-13.

32.        Schwinning, S., Sandquist, D. R., Miller, D. M., Bedford, D. R., Phillips, S. L., and Belnap, J., 2011, The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution: Ecohydrology, v. 4, p. 12-25.

33.        Belnap, J., (2010). Biological phosphorus cycling in drylands. In: E. K. Büneman, Oberson, A., Frossard, E. (Editor), Phosphorus in action. Springer, Berlin.

34.        Bowker, M., Belnap, J., and Davidson, D. W., 2010, Microclimate and propagule availability are equally important for rehabilitation of dryland N-fixing lichens: Restoration Ecology, v. 18, p. 30-33.

35.        Bowling, D. R., Bethers-Marchetti, S., Lunch, C. K., Grote, E. E., and Belnap, J., 2010, Carbon, water, and energy fluxes in a semiarid cold desert grassland during and following multiyear drought: Journal of Geophysical Research  v. 115, p. 16.

36.        Darby, B., Neher, D., and Belnap, J., 2010, Impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfaunal community composition: Plant Soil, v. 328, p. 421-431.

37.        Grote, E. E., Belnap, J., Housman, D. C., and Sparks, J. P., 2010, Carbon exchange in biological soil crust communities under differential temperatures and soil water contents: implications for global change Global Change Biology, v. 16, p. 2763-2774.

38.        Herrick, J. E., Van Zee, J. W., Belnap, J., Johansen, J. R., and Remmenga, M., 2010, Fine gravel controls hydrologic and erodibility responses to trampling disturbance for coarse-textured soils with seak cyanobacterial crusts: Catena, v. 83, p. 119-126.

39.        Hultine, K. R., J. Belnap, C. van Riper, J. R. Ehleringer, P. E. Dennison, M. E. Lee, P. L. Nagler, K. A. Snyder, S. M. Uselman and J. B. West (2010). Tamarisk biocontrol in the western United States: ecological and societal implications. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8(9): 467-474.

40.        Li, J., Okin, G. S., Herrick, J., Belnap, J., Munson, S. M., and Miller, M. E., 2010, A simple method to estimate threshold friction velocity of wind erosion in the field: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 37

41.        Painter, T. H., Deems, J. S., Belnap, J., Hamlet, A. F., Landry, C. C., and Udall, B., 2010, Response of Colorado River runoff to dust radiative forcing in snow: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

42.        Pereira, H., Belnap, J., Brummitt, N., Collen, B., Ding, H., Gonzalez-Espinosa, M., Gregory, R., Honrado, J., Jongman, R., Jullirard, R., McRae, L., Proenca, V., Rogdrigues, P., Opige, M., Rodriguez, J. P., Opiage, M., Schmeller, D. S., van Swaay, C., and Vieira, C., 2010, Global biodiversity monitoring: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v. 8, p. 459-460.

43.        Zhao, Y., Mingxiang, X., and Belnap, J., 2010, Response of biocrusts' photosynthesis to environmental factors: a possible explanation of the spatial distribution of biocrusts in the Hilly Loess Plateau region of China Ecological Sinica, v. 30, p. 4668-4675.

44.        Zhao, Y., Xu, M., and Belnap, J., 2010, Potential nitrogen fixation activity of different aged biological soil crusts from rehabilitated grasslands of the hilly Loess Plateau, China: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 74, p. 1186-1191.

45.        Belnap, J., Reynolds, R. L., Reheis, M. C., Phillips, S. L., Urban, F. E., and Goldstein, H. L., 2009, Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA: Aeolian Research, v. 1, p. 27-43.

46.        Belnap, J., and Sherrod, S. K., 2009, Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth.: Plant Ecology, v. 201, p. 709-721.

47.        Field, J. P., Belnap, J., Breshears, D. D., Neff, J. C., Okin, G. S., Whicker, J. J., Painter, T. H., Ravi, S., Reheis, M. C., and Reynolds, R. L., 2009, The ecology of dust: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v. 8, p. 423-430.

48.        Goldstein, H. L., Miller, M. E., Yount, J. C., Reheis, M. C., Reynolds, R. L., Belnap, J., Lamothe, P. J., and McGeehan, J. P., 2009, Physical, chemical, ecological and age data and trench logs from surficial deposits at hatch point, southeastern Utah: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2009-1219.

49.        Jimenez Aguilar, A., Huber-Sannwald, E., Belnap, J., Smart, D. R., and Arredondo Moreno, J. T., 2009, Biological soil crusts exhibit a dynamic response to seasonal rain and release from grazing with implications for soil stability: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 73, p. 1158-1169.

50.        Riginos, C., Herrick, J. E., Belnap, J., Sundaresan, S. R., Worden, J. S., and Kinnaird, M. F., 2009, Monitoring Rangeland Health - A Guide for Facilitators and Pastoralist Communities, Volume Draft Version I, Mpala Research Centre, p. 54.

51.        Schlesinger, W. H., Belnap, J., and Marion, G., 2009, On carbon sequestration in desert ecosystems: Global Change Biology, v. 15, p. 1488-1490.

52.        Webb, R. H., Belnap, J., and Thomas, K. A., 2009, Natural recovery from severe disturbance in the Mojave Desert, in Webb, R. H., Fenstermaker, L. F., Heaton, J. S., Hughson, D. L., McDonald, E. V., and D.M., M., eds., The Mojave Desert: Ecosystem Processes and Sustainability: Reno, Nevada, University of Nevada Press, p. 343-377.

53.        Belnap, J., 2008, Biological Crusts, in Lal, R., ed., Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Volume 1:1: New York, Taylor & Francis Group, p. 1-4.

54.        Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., Flint, S., Money, J., and Caldwell, M., 2008, Global change and biological soil crusts: Effects of ultraviolet augmentation under altered precipitation regimes and nitrogen additions: Global Change Biology, v. 14, p. 670-686.

55.        Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., Witwicki, D. L., and Miller, M. E., 2008, Visually assessing the level of development and soil surface stability of cyanobacterially dominated biological soil crusts: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 72, p. 1257-1264.

56.        Belnap, J., Webb, R. H., Miller, M. E., Miller, D. M., DeFalco, L. A., Medica, P. A., Brooks, M. L., Esque, T. C., and Bedford, D., 2008, Monitoring ecosystem quality and function in arid settings of the Mojave Desert, Menlo Park, CA, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report 2008-5064, 119 p.:

57.        Bowker, M., Johnson, N. C., Belnap, J., and Koch, G., 2008, Short-term monitoring of aridland lichen cover and biomass using photography and fatty acids: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 72, p. 869-878.

58.        Bowker, M. A., and Belnap, J., 2008, A simple classification of biological soil crust habitat on the Colorado Plateau, USA: Journal of Vegetation Science, v. 19, p. 831-840.

59.        Bowker, M. A., Belnap, J., Bala Chaudhary, V., and Johnson, N. C., 2008, Revisiting classic water erosion models in drylands: The strong impact of biological soil crusts: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v. 40, p. 2309-2316.

60.        Bowker, M. A., Koch, G. W., Belnap, J., and Johnson, N. C., 2008, Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v. 40, p. 2819-2826.

61.        Bowker, M. A., Miller, M. E., Belnap, J., Sisk, T. D., and Johnson, N. C., 2008, Prioritizing conservation effort through the use of biological soil crusts as ecosystem function indicators in an arid region: Conservation Biology, v. 22, p. 1533-1543.

62.        Flechtner, V. R., Johansen, J. R., and Belnap, J., 2008, The biological soil crusts of the San Nicolas Islands: enigmatic algae from a geographically isolated ecosystem: Western North American Naturalist, v. 68, p. 405-436.

63.        Madsen, M. D., Chandler, D. G., and Belnap, J., 2008, Spatial gradients in ecohydrologic properties within a pinyon-juniper ecosystem: Ecohydrology, v. 1, p. 349-360.

64.        Schwinning, S., Belnap, J., Bowling, D. R., and Ehleringer, J. R., 2008, Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to change: climate, ecosystems and society: Ecology and Society, v. 13, p. Art. 28.

65.        Belnap, J., 2007, ESA publications revisited: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v. 5, p. 515-515.

66.        Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., Herrick, J. E., and Johansen, J. R., 2007, Wind erodibility of soils at Fort Irwin, California (Mojave Desert), USA, before and after trampling disturbance: Implications for land management: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 32, p. 75-84.

67.        Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., and Smith, S., 2007, Dynamics of cover, UV-protective pigments, and quantum yield in biological soil crust communities of an undisturbed Mojave Desert shrubland: Flora, v. 202, p. 674-686.

68.        Bowker, M. A., Belnap, J., and Miller, M. E., 2007, Spatial modeling of biological soil crusts to support land management decisions: Indicators of range health and conservation-restoration value based upon the potential distribution of biological soil crusts in Montezuma Castle, Tuzigoot, Walnut Canyon, and Wupatki National Monuments, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey.

69.        Darby, B. J., Neher, D. A., and Belnap, J., 2007, Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts: Applied Soil Ecology, v. 35, p. 203-212.

70.        Hartley, A. E., Barger, N., Belnap, J., and Okin, G. S., 2007, Dryland ecosystems, in Marschner, P., and Rengel, Z., eds., Nutrient Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems, Volume 10: Berlin, Springer, p. 271-308.

71.        Housman, D. C., Yeager, C. M., Darby, B. J., Sanford, J., Robert L., Kuske, C., Neher, D. A., and Belnap, J., 2007, Heterogeneity of soil nutrients and subsurface biota in a dryland ecosystem: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v. 39, p. 2138-2149.

72.        Newingham, B. A., Vidiella, P., and Belnap, J., 2007, Do soil characteristics or microhabitat determine field emergence and success of Bromus tectorum?: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 70, p. 389-402.

73.        Rosentreter, R., Bowker, M., and Belnap, J., 2007, A field guide to biological soil crusts of western U.S. drylands: Common lichens and bryophytes, Denver, Colorado, U.S. Government Printing Office, 104 p.:

74.        Yeager, C. M., Kornosky, J. L., Morgan, R., Cain, E., Belnap, J., and Kuske, C. R., 2007, Three distinct clades of cultured heterocystous cyanobacteria comprise the dominant N2-fixing members of biological soil crusts of the Colorado Plateau, USA: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, v. 60, p. 85-97.

75.        Barger, N. N., Herrick, J. E., Van Zee, J., and Belnap, J., 2006, Impacts of biological soil crust disturbance and composition on C and N loss from water erosion: Biogeochemistry, v. 77, p. 247-263.

76.        Belnap, J., 2006, From the ground up: Biological soil crusts in the Sonoran Desert, in Broyles, B., and Felger, R. S., eds., Dry Borders: Great Natural Reserves of the Sonoran Desert: Salt Lake City, Utah, University of Utah Press, p. 750.

77.        Belnap, J., 2006, The potential roles of biological soil crusts in dryland hydrologic cycles: Hydrological Processes, v. 20, p. 3159-3178.

78.        Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., and Troxler, T., 2006, Soil lichen and moss cover and species richness can be highly dynamic: The effects of invasion by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum and the effects of climate on biological soil crusts: Applied Soil Ecology, v. 32, p. 63-76.

79.        Bowker, M. A., Belnap, J., Davidson, D. W., and Goldstein, H., 2006, Correlates of biological soil crust abundance across a continuum of spatial scales: Support for a hierarchical conceptual model: Journal of Applied Ecology, v. 43, p. 152-163.

80.        Bowker, M. A., Belnap, J., and Miller, M. E., 2006, Spatial modeling of biological soil crusts to support rangeland assessment and monitoring: Rangeland Ecology and Management, v. 59, p. 519-529.

81.        Darby, B. J., Housman, D. C., Zaki, A. M., Shamout, Y., Adl, S. M., Belnap, J., and Neher, D. A., 2006, Effects of altered temperature and precipitation on desert protozoa associated with biological soil crusts: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, v. 53, p. 507-514.

82.        Fernandez, D., Neff, J., Belnap, J., and Reynolds, R., 2006, Soil respiration in the cold desert environment of the Colorado Plateau (USA): Abiotic regulators and thresholds: Biogeochemistry, v. 78, p. 247-265.

83.        Hawkes, C. V., Belnap, J., D'Antonio, C. M., and Firestone, M. K., 2006, Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses: Plant and Soil, v. 281, p. 367-379.

84.        Housman, D. C., Powers, H. H., Collins, A. D., and Belnap, J., 2006, Carbon and nitrogen fixation differ between successional stages of biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 66, p. 620-634.

85.        Miller, M. E., Belnap, J., Beatty, S., and Reynolds, R. L., 2006, Performance of Bromus tectorum L. in relation to soil properties, water additions, and chemical amendments in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA: Plant and Soil, v. 288, p. 1-18.

86.        Miller, M. E., Belnap, J., Beatty, S. W., and Webb, B. L., 2006, Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, U.S.A.: Plant and Soil, v. 288, p. 19-29.

87.        Newingham, B. A., and Belnap, J., 2006, Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth: Plant and Soil, v. 280, p. 29-40.

88.        Sperry, L. J., Belnap, J., and Evans, R. D., 2006, Bromus tectorum invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an undisturbed arid grassland ecosystem: Ecology, v. 87, p. 603-615.

89.        Barger, N. N., Belnap, J., Ojima, D., and Mosier, A., 2005, NO gas loss from biologically crusted soils in Canyonlands National Park, Utah: Biogeochemistry, v. 75, p. 373-391.

90.        Belnap, J., 2005, Cyanobacteria and Algae, in Sylvia, D. M., Fuhrmann, J. J., Hartel, P. G., and Zuberer, D. A., eds., Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Education, Inc., p. 162-180.

91.        Belnap, J., 2005, Crusts: Biological, in Hillel, D., Hatfield, J. H., Powlson, D. S., Rosenzeig, C., Scow, K. M., Singer, M. J., and Sparks, D. L., eds., Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment: Oxford, U.K., Elsevier Ltd., p. 339-347.

92.        Belnap, J. and O. L. Lange, (2005). Biological soil crusts and global changes: What does the future hold? In: J. Dighton, J. F. White and P. Oudemans (Editors), The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem Vol. 23. Mycology. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 697-712.

93.        Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., 2005, Lichens and microfungi in biological soil crusts: Community structure, physiology and ecological functions, in Dighton, J., White, J. F., and Oudemans, P., eds., The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem Vol. 23: Boca Raton, Florida, Taylor & Francis Group, p. 117-138.

94.        Belnap, J., 2005, Biological soil crusts and global changes: What does the future hold?, in Dighton, J., White, J. F., and Oudemans, P., eds., The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem Vol. 23: Boca Raton, Florida, Taylor & Francis Group, p. 697-712.

95.        Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., Sherrod, S., and Moldenke, A., 2005, Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: Does this affect ecosystem processes?: Ecology, v. 86, p. 3007-3017.

96.        Belnap, J., Welter, J. R., Grimm, N. B., Barger, N. N., and Ludwig, J. A., 2005, Linkages between microbial and hydrologic processes in arid and semi-arid watersheds: Ecology, v. 86, p. 298-307.

97.        Bowker, M. A., Belnap, J., Davidson, D. W., and Phillips, S. L., 2005, Evidence for micronutrient limitation of biological soil crusts: Importance to arid-lands restoration: Ecological Applications, v. 15, p. 1941-1951.

98.        Breshears, D. D., Cobb, N. S., Rich, P. M., Price, K. P., Allen, C. D., Balice, R. G., Romme, W. H., Kastens, J. H., Floyd, M. L., Belnap, J., Anderson, J. J., Myers, O. B., and Meyer, C. W., 2005, Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 102, p. 15144-15148.

99.        Johnson, S. L., Budinoff, C. R., Belnap, J., and Garcia-Pichel, F., 2005, Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities: Environmental Microbiology, v. 7, p. 1-12.

100.    Neff, J. C., Reynolds, R., Belnap, J., and Lamothe, P., 2005, Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah: Ecological Applications, v. 15, p. 87-95.

101.    Austin, A. T., Yahdjian, M. L., Stark, J. M., Belnap, J., Porporato, A., Norton, U., Ravetta, D., and Shaeffer, S. M., 2004, Water pulses and biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid ecosystems: Oecologia, v. 141, p. 221-235.

102.    Barger, N. N., Ojima, D., Belnap, J., Shiping, W., Yanfen, W., and Chen, Z., 2004, Changes in plant functional groups, litter quality, and soil C and N mineralization with sheep grazing in an Inner Mongolian grassland: Journal of Range Management, v. 57, p. 613-619.

103.    Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., and Miller, M. E., 2004, Response of desert biological soil crusts to alterations in precipitation frequency: Oecologia, v. 141, p. 306-316.

104.    Bowker, M. A., Belnap, J., Rosentreter, R., and Graham, B., 2004, Wildfire-resistant biological soil crusts and fire-induced loss of soil stability in Palouse prairies, USA: Applied Soil Ecology, v. 26, 1, p. 41-52.

105.    Loik, M. E., Breshears, D. D., Lauenroth, W. K., and Belnap, J., 2004, A multi-scale perspective of water pulses in dryland ecosystems: Climatology and ecohydrology of the western USA: Oecologia, v. 141, p. 269-281.

106.    Webb, R. H., Belnap, J., and Weisheit, J. S., 2004, Cataract Canyon: A Human and Environmental History of the Rivers in Canyonlands, Salt Lake City, University of Utah Press, 268 p.:

107.    Yeager, C. M., Kornosky, J. L., Housman, D. C., Grote, E. E., Belnap, J., and Kuske, C. R., 2004, Diazotrophic community structure and function in two successional stages of biological soil crusts from the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 70, p. 973-983.

108.    Bashkin, M., Stohlgren, T. J., Otsuki, Y., Lee, M., Evangelista, P., and Belnap, J., 2003, Soil characteristics and plant exotic species invasions in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah, USA: Applied Soil Ecology, v. 22, p. 67-77.

109.    Belnap, J., 2003, Biological soil crusts in deserts: a short review of their role in soil fertility, stabilization, and water relations: Algological Studies, v. 109, p. 113-126.

110.    Belnap, J., 2003, Biological soil crusts and wind erosion, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 339-347.

111.    Belnap, J., 2003, Comparative structure of physical and biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 177-191.

112.    Belnap, J., 2003, Factors influencing nitrogen fixation and nitrogen release in biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 241-261.

113.    Belnap, J., 2003, Magnificent microbes: Biological soil crusts in Piñon-Juniper communities, in Floyd, M. L., ed., Ancient Piñon-Juniper Woodlands: A Natural History of Mesa Verde Country: Boulder, Colorado, University Press of Colorado, p. 75-88.

114.    Belnap, J., 2003, Microbes and microfauna associated with biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 167-174.

115.    Belnap, J., 2003, The world at your feet: Desert biological soil crusts: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v. 1, p. 181-189.

116.    Belnap, J., and Eldridge, D., 2003, Disturbance and recovery of biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 363-383.

117.    Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., 2003, Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, in Baldwin, I. T., Caldwell, M. M., Heldmaier, G., Lange, O. L., Mooney, H. A., Schulze, E.-D., and Sommer, U., eds., Ecological Studies Series 150, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 503.

118.    Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., 2003, Structure and functioning of biological soil crusts: A synthesis, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 471-479.

119.    Belnap, J., and Lindsey, J. P., 2003, At the ground level: Fungi and mosses, in Floyd, M. L., ed., Ancient Piñon-Juniper Woodlands: A Natural History of Mesa Verde Country: Boulder, Colorado, University Press of Colorado, p. 61-74.

120.    Belnap, J., Büdel, B., and Lange, O. L., 2003, Biological soil crusts: Characteristics and distribution, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 3-30.

121.    Belnap, J., Hawkes, C. V., and Firestone, M. K., 2003, Boundaries in miniature: Two examples from soil: BioScience, v. 53, p. 739-749.

122.    Belnap, J., Phillips, S. L., Duniway, M., and Reynolds, R. E., 2003, Soil fertility in deserts: A review on the influence of biological soil crusts and the effect of soil surface disturbance on nutrient inputs and losses, in Alsharhan, A. S., Wood, W. W., Goudie, A., Fowler, A. R., and Abdellatif, E. M., eds., Desertification in the Third Millennium: Lisse, The Netherlands, Swets & Zeitlinger (Balkema), p. 245-252.

123.    Belnap, J., Prasse, R., and Harper, K. T., 2003, Influence of biological soil crusts on soil environments and vascular plants, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 281-300.

124.    Belnap, J., Sherrod, S. K., and Miller, M. E., 2003, Effects of soil amendments on germination and emergence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Hilaria jamesii: Weed Science, v. 51, p. 371-378.

125.    Clausnitzer, D., Huso, M., Pyke, D., Belnap, J., Graham, T., Sanford, R. L., and Phillips, S. L., 2003, Interactions of cattle grazing and climate change: Hierarchical data analysis, in Allsopp, N., Palmer, A. R., Milton, S. J., Kirkman, K. P., Kerley, G. I. H., and Hurt, C. R., eds., Proceedings of the VIIth International Rangelands Congress, July 26-August 1, 2003, Durban, South Africa: Irene, South Africa, Document Transformation Technologies, p. 1062-1064.

126.    Duda, J. J., Freeman, D. C., Emlen, J. M., Belnap, J., Kitchen, S. G., Zak, J. C., Sobek, E., Tracy, M., and Montante, J., 2003, Differences in native soil ecology associated with invasion of the exotic annual chenopod, Halogeton glomeratus: Biology and Fertility of Soils, v. 38, p. 72-77.

127.    Evans, R. D., Belnap, J., Garcia-Pichel, F., and Phillips, S. L., 2003, Global change and the future of biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 417-429.

128.    Garcia-Pichel, F., and Belnap, J., 2003, Small-scale environments and distribution of biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 193-201.

129.    Garcia-Pichel, F., Belnap, J., Neuer, S., and Schanz, F., 2003, Estimates of global cyanobacterial biomass and its distribution: Algological Studies, v. 109, p. 213-227.

130.    Garcia-Pichel, F., Johnson, S. L., Youngkin, D., and Belnap, J., 2003, Small-scale vertical distribution of bacterial biomass and diversity in biological soil crusts from arid lands in the Colorado Plateau: Microbial Ecology, v. 46, p. 312-321.

131.    Gelbard, J. L., and Belnap, J., 2003, Roads as conduits for exotic plant invasions in a semiarid landscape: Conservation Biology, v. 17, p. 420-432.

132.    Reynolds, R. E., Reheis, M., Hinkley, T., Tigges, R., Clow, G. D., Lamothe, P., Yount, J. C., Meeker, G., Chavez Jr., P. S., Mackinnon, D. J., Velasco, M. G., Sides, S. C., Soltesz, D. L., Lancaster, N., Miller, M. E., Fulton, R., and Belnap, J., 2003, Dust emission and deposition in southwestern United States - integrated field, remote sensing, and modeling studies to evaluate response to climatic variability and land use, in Alsharhan, A. S., Wood, W. W., Goudie, A. S., Fowler, A., and Abdellatif, E. M., eds., Desertification in the Third Millennium, Proceedings of an international conference, February 12-15, 2000, Dubai, United Arab Emerites: Lisse, The Netherlands, Swets & Zeitlinger (Balkema), p. 271-282.

133.    Rosentreter, R., and Belnap, J., 2003, Biological soil crusts of North America, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 31-50.

134.    Sherrod, S. K., Belnap, J., and Miller, M. E., 2003, Comparison of ion-exchange resin counterions in the nutrient measurement of calcareous soils: Implications for correlative studies of plant-soil relationships: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, v. 34, p. 1981-2001.

135.    Sherrod, S. K., Belnap, J., and Miller, M. E., 2003, Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, v. 34, p. 13-20.

136.    Strayer, D. L., Power, M. E., Fagan, W. F., Pickett, S. T. A., and Belnap, J., 2003, A classification of ecological boundaries: BioScience, v. 53, p. 723-729.

137.    Belnap, J., 2002, Impacts of off-road vehicles on nitrogen cycles in biological soil crusts: Resistance in different U.S. deserts: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 52, p. 155-165.

138.    Belnap, J., 2002, Nitrogen fixation in biological soil crusts from southeast Utah, USA: Biology and Fertility of Soils, v. 35, p. 128-135.

139.    Belnap, J., 2002, Biological soil crusts of Arabian sabkhat, in Barth, H.-J., and Böer, B., eds., Sabkha Ecosystems, Vol. 1: The Arabian Peninsula and Adjacent Countries: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 227-237.

140.    Belnap, J., 2002, Biological soil crusts: Webs of life in the desert. (Online). US Geological Survey Fact Sheet No. FS-065-01.: Moab, Utah, US Geological Survey. http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/fs/fs-065-01.pdf.

141.    Belnap, J., and Warren, S. D., 2002, Patton's tracks in the Mojave Desert, USA: An ecological legacy: Arid Land Research and Management, v. 16, p. 245-258.

142.    Bowker, M. A., Reed, S. C., Belnap, J., and Phillips, S. L., 2002, Temporal variation in community composition, pigmentation, and Fv /Fm of desert cyanobacterial soil crusts: Microbial Ecology, v. 43, p. 13-25.

143.    Davidson, D. W., Bowker, M. A., George, D., Phillips, S. L., and Belnap, J., 2002, Treatment effects on performance of N-fixing lichens in disturbed soil crusts of the Colorado Plateau: Ecological Applications, v. 12, p. 1391-1405.

144.    Kuske, C. R., Ticknor, L. O., Miller, M. E., Dunbar, J. M., Davis, J. A., Barns, S. M., and Belnap, J., 2002, Comparison of soil bacterial communities in rhizospheres of three plant species and the interspaces in an arid grassland: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 68, p. 1854-1863.

145.    Redfield, E., Barns, S. M., Belnap, J., Daane, L. L., and Kuske, C. R., 2002, Comparative diversity and composition of cyanobacteria in three predominant soil crusts of the Colorado Plateau: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, v. 40, p. 55-63.

146.    Sherrod, S. K., Belnap, J., and Miller, M. E., 2002, Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions: Soil Science, v. 167, p. 666-679.

147.    Belnap, J., 2001, Microbes and microfauna associated with biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 167-174.

148.    Belnap, J., 2001, Comparative structure of physical and biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 177-191.

149.    Belnap, J., 2001, Factors influencing nitrogen fixation and nitrogen release in biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 241-261.

150.    Belnap, J., 2001, Biological soil crusts and wind erosion, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 339-347.

151.    Belnap, J., Büdel, B., and Lange, O. L., 2001, Biological soil crusts: Characteristics and distribution, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 3-30.

152.    Belnap, J., Prasse, R., and Harper, K. T., 2001, Influence of biological soil crusts on soil environments and vascular plants, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 281-300.

153.    Belnap, J., and Eldridge, D., 2001, Disturbance and recovery of biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 363-383.

154.    Belnap, J., Kaltenecker, J. H., Rosentreter, R., Williams, J., Leonard, S., and Eldridge, D., 2001, Biological soil crusts: Ecology and management, Technical Reference No. 1730-2, Denver, Colorado, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, 110 p.:

155.    Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., 2001, Structure and functioning of biological soil crusts: A synthesis, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 471-479.

156.    Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., 2001, Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, in Baldwin, I. T., Caldwell, M. M., Heldmaier, G., Lange, O. L., Mooney, H. A., Schulze, E.-D., and Sommer, U., eds., Ecological Studies Series 150, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 503.

157.    Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., 2001, Preface, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. v-ix.

158.    Belnap, J., and Phillips, S. L., 2001, Soil biota in an ungrazed grassland: Response to annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion: Ecological Applications, v. 11, p. 1261-1275.

159.    Belnap, J., Reynolds, R. L., Reheis, M., and Phillips, S. L., 2001, What makes the desert bloom? The contributions of dust and crusts to soil fertility on the Colorado Plateau, in McArthur, E. D., and Fairbanks, D. J., eds., 11th Wildland Shrub Synposium: Shrubland Ecosystem Genetics and Biodiversity, June 13-15, 2000, Provo, Utah, Proceedings No. RMRS-P-21: Ogden, Utah, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, p. 147-153.

160.    Evans, R. D., Belnap, J., Garcia-Pichel, F., and Phillips, S. L., 2001, Global change and the future of biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Volume 150: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 417-429.

161.    Evans, R. D., Rimer, R., Sperry, L. J., and Belnap, J., 2001, Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland: Ecological Applications, v. 11, p. 1301-1310.

162.    Garcia-Pichel, F., and Belnap, J., 2001, Small-scale environments and distribution of biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 193-201.

163.    Harper, K. T., and Belnap, J., 2001, The influence of biological soil crusts on mineral uptake by associated vascular plants: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 47, , p. 347-357.

164.    Miller, M., Belnap, J., Beatty, S., and Webb, B., 2001, Components of spatial and temporal soil variation at Canyonlands National Park: Implications for P dynamics and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) performance, in McArthur, E. D., and Fairbanks, D. J., eds., 11th Wildland Shrub Symposium: Shrubland Ecosystem Genetics and Biodiversity, June 13-15, 2000, Provo, Utah, Proceedings No. RMRS-P-21: Ogden, Utah, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, p. 154-162.

165.    Reynolds, R., Belnap, J., Reheis, M., Lamothe, P., and Luiszer, F., 2001, Aeolian dust in Colorado Plateau soils: Nutrient inputs and recent change in source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 98, p. 7123-7127.

166.    Rosentreter, R., and Belnap, J., 2001, Biological soil crusts of North America, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O. L., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 31-50.

167.    Stohlgren, T. J., Otsuki, Y., Villa, C. A., Lee, M., and Belnap, J., 2001, Patterns of plant invasions: A case example in native species hotspots and rare habitats: Biological Invasions, v. 3, p. 37-50.

168.    Belnap, J., 2000, Structure and function of biological soil crusts, in Entwistle, P. G., DeBolt, A. M., Kaltenecker, J. H., and Steenhof, K., eds., Proceedings: Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems Symposium, June 23-25, 1999, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, Bureau of Land Management, p. 55-62.

169.    Belnap, J., Ojima, D., Phillips, S. L., and Barger, N. N., 1999, Biological soil crusts of Mongolia: Impacts of grazing and precipitation on nitrogen inputs, in Eldridge, D., and Freudenberger, D., eds., People and Rangelands: Building the Future: Proceedings of the VI International Rangeland Congress, July 17-23, 1999, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, Vol. 1, VI International Rangeland Congress, Inc., p. 130-131.

170.    Belnap, J., Williams, J., and Kaltenecker, J., 1999, Structure and function of biological soil crusts, in Meurisse, R. T., Ypsilantis, W. G., and Seybold, C., eds., Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Forest & Rangeland Soil Organism Symposium, March 17-19, 1998, Corvallis, Oregon, General Technical Report No. PNW-GTR-461: Portland, Oregon, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, p. 161-178.

171.    Carroll, C. R., Belnap, J., Breckenridge, B., and Meffe, G., 1999, Ecosystem sustainability and condition, in Sexton, W. T., Malk, A. J., Szarzo, R. C., and Johnson, N. C., eds., Ecological Stewardship: A Common Reference for Ecosystem Management: New York, Elsevier Science, p. 583-598.

172.    Evans, R. D., and Belnap, J., 1999, Long-term consequences of disturbance on nitrogen dynamics in an arid ecosystem: Ecology, v. 80, p. 150-160.

173.    Ojima, D. S., Tieszen, L., Chuluun, T., Belnap, J., Dodd, J., and Chen, Z., 1999, Factors influencing production systems of the Mongolian steppe: Potential global change impacts on semi-arid ecosystems, in Eldridge, D., and Freudenberger, D., eds., People and Rangelands: Building the Future: Proceedings of the VI International Rangeland Congress, July 17-23, 1999, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, Vol. 1, VI International Rangeland Congress, Inc., p. 264-265.

174.    Belnap, J., 1998, The biota and ecology, in Keiter, R. B., George, S. B., and Walker, J., eds., Visions of the Grand Staircase-Escalante: Examining Utah's Newest National Monument: Salt Lake City, Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History and Wallace Stegner Center, p. 21-30.

175.    Belnap, J., 1998, Choosing indicators of natural resource condition: A case study in Arches National Park, Utah, USA: Environmental Management, v. 22, p. 635-642.

176.    Belnap, J., 1998, Ecological resources of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, in Hill, L. M., ed., Learning from the Land: Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Science Symposium Proceedings, November 4-5, 1997, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah, BLM Technical Report No. BLM/UT/GI-98/006+1220: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, p. 17-25.

177.    Belnap, J., 1998, Impacts of trampling soils in southeast Utah ecosystems, in Hill, L. M., ed., Learning from the Land: Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Science Symposium Proceedings, November 4-5, 1997, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah, BLM Technical Report No. BLM/UT/GI-98/006+1220: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, p. 231-244.

178.    Belnap, J., and Gillette, D. A., 1998, Vulnerability of desert biological soil crusts to wind erosion: The influences of crust development, soil texture, and disturbance: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 39, p. 133-142.

179.    Belnap, J., Tongway, D., Kerley, G., and Sanford, R., Humans and livestock in arid and semi-arid ecosystems: impacts on land cover and nutrient cycles, in Proceedings The Earth's Changing Land: GCTE-LUCC Open Science Conference on Global Change, Barcelona, Spain, 14-18 March 1998 1998, GCTE-LUCC Open Science Conference, p. pg. 248 (abstract only).

180.    Bogan, M. A., Allen, C. D., Muldavin, E. H., Platania, S. P., Stuart, J. N., Farley, G. H., Mehlhop, P., and Belnap, J., 1998, Southwest, in Mac, M. J., Opler, P. A., Puckett-Haecker, C. E., and Doran, P. D., eds., Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources, Volume 2: Reston, Virginia, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, p. 543-592.

181.    Davidson, D., and Belnap, J., 1998, Non-native brome grasses in the new National Monument, in Hill, L. M., ed., Learning from the Land: Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Science Symposium Proceedings, November 4-5, 1997, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah, BLM Technical Report BLM/UT/GI-98/006+1220: Cedar City, Utah, p. 161-172.

182.    Lange, O. L., Belnap, J., and Reichenberger, H., 1998, Photosynthesis of the cyanobacterial soil-crust lichen Collema tenax from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: Role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange: Functional Ecology, v. 12, p. 195-202.

183.    Reynolds, R., Belnap, J., Reheis, M., and Mazza, N., 1998, Eolian dust on the Colorado Plateau: Magnetic and geochemical evidence from sediment in potholes and biologic soil crust, in Busacca, A., Lilligren, S., and Newell, K., eds., Proceedings: Dust Aerosols, Loess, Soils, and Global Change, An Interdisciplinary Conference and Field Tour on Dust in Ancient Environments and Contemporary Environmental Management, October 11-14, 1998,  Seattle, Washington, Miscellaneous Publication No. MISCO190: Seattle, Washington, Washington State University, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, p. 231-234.

184.    Stohlgren, T. J., Belnap, J., Chong, G. W., and Reich, R., 1998, A plan to assess native and exotic plant diversity and cryptobiotic crusts in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, in Hill, L. M., ed., Learning from the Land: Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Science Symposium Proceedings, November 4-5, 1997, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah, BLM Technical Report No. BLM/UT/GI-98/006+1220: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, p. 269-276.

185.    Belnap, J., 1997, Cryptobiotic soils: Holding the place in place, U.S. Global Change Research Program: Impact of Climate Change and Land Use in the Southwestern United States, a Web-based Workshop, http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/impacts/biology/crypto/.

186.    Belnap, J., and Gillette, D. A., 1997, Disturbance of biological soil crusts: Impacts on potential wind erodibility of sandy desert soils in southeastern Utah: Land Degradation and Development, v. 8, p. 355-362.

187.    Johnston, R. L., and Belnap, J., 1997, Potential for influencing native bunchgrass restoration by manipulating soil biota, in Kaye, T. N., Liston, A., R. M. Love, Luoma, D. L., Meinke, R. J., and Wilson, M. B., eds., Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi: Corvalis, Oregon, Native Plant Society of Oregon, p. 99-104.

188.    Lange, O. L., Belnap, J., Reichenberger, H., and Meyer, A., 1997, Photosynthesis of green algal soil crust lichens from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: Role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange: Flora, v. 192, p. 1-15.

189.    Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Gillette, D., and Belnap, J., 1997, Factors controlling threshold friction velocity in semiarid and arid areas of the United States: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 102, p. 23277-23287.

190.    Belnap, J., 1996, Soil surface disturbances in cold deserts: Effects on nitrogenase activity in cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts: Biology and Fertility of Soils, v. 23, p. 362-367.

191.    Belnap, J., 1996, Impact of soil surface disturbance on cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts in deserts of the southwest United States, in Bartholomew, B., ed., Desert Tortoise Council: Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Symposium, March 29-31, 1996, Las Vegas, Nevada: Beaumont, California, Desert Tortoise Council, p. 42-43.

192.    Belnap, J., 1996, Impacts of soil surface trampling: A case study in Arches National Park, in Bartholomew, B., ed., Desert Tortoise Council: Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Symposium, March 29-31, 1996, Las Vegas, Nevada: Beaumont, California, Desert Tortoise Council, p. 44.

193.    Belnap, J., Sanford, R. L., and Lungu, L., 1996, Biological soil crusts: Ecological roles and response to fire in Miombo woodlands of Zimbabwe: Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association, v. 70, p. 14-20.

194.    DeFalco, L., Belnap, J., Harper, K., and Warren, S. D., 1996, Cryptobiotic crusts and their influence on annual plants and the desert tortoise, in Bartholomew, B., ed., Desert Tortoise Council: Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Symposium, March 29-31, 1996, Las Vegas, Nevada: Beaumont, California, Desert Tortoise Council, p. 43-44.

195.    Garcia-Pichel, F., and Belnap, J., 1996, Microenvironments and microscale productivity of cyanobacterial desert crusts: Journal of Phycology, v. 32, p. 774-782.

196.    Johnston, R., and Belnap, J., 1996, Soil biota changes along a disturbance gradient: Impacts on vegetation composition and prospects for restoration, in Bartholomew, B., ed., Desert Tortoise Council: Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Symposium, March 29-31, 1996, Las Vegas, Nevada: Beaumont, California, Desert Tortoise Council, p. 33-34.

197.    Steppe, T. F., Olson, J. B., Paerl, H. W., Litaker, R. W., and Belnap, J., 1996, Consortial N2 fixation: A strategy for meeting nitrogen requirements of marine and terrestrial cyanobacterial mats: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, v. 21, p. 149-156.

198.    Belnap, J., 1995, Surface disturbances: Their role in accelerating desertification: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, v. 37, p. 39-57.

199.    Belnap, J., 1995, Genetic integrity: Why do we care? An overview of the issues, in Roundy, B. A., McArthur, E. D., Haley, J. S., and Mann, D. K., eds., Proceedings: Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium, October 19-21, 1993, Las Vegas, Nevada, General Technical Report No. INT-GTR-315: Ogden, Utah, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, p. 265-266.

200.    Belnap, J., and Harper, K. T., 1995, Influence of cryptobiotic soil crusts on elemental content of tissue of two desert seed plants: Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, v. 9, p. 107-115.

201.    Belnap, J., and Sharpe, S., 1995, Reestablishing cold-desert grasslands: A seeding experiment in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, in Roundy, B. A., McArthur, E. D., Haley, J. S., and Mann, D. K., eds., Proceedings: Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium, October 19-21, 1993, Las Vegas, Nevada, General Technical Report No. INT-GTR-315: Ogden, Utah, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, p. 46-51.

202.    Rutman, S., and Belnap, J., 1995, The hidden world of cryptobiotic soil "Don't Tread on Me": Arizona Conservation Voter, v. 3, p. 10.

203.    Belnap, J., 1994, Cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts of San Nicolas Island, in Halvorson, W. L., and Maender, G. J., eds., Proceedings: The Fourth California Islands Symposium: Update on the Status of Resources, 1994, Santa Barbara, California: Santa Barbara, California, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, p. 491-495.

204.    Belnap, J., 1994, Potential role of cryptobiotic soil crusts in semiarid rangelands, in Monsen, S. B., and Kitchen, S. G., eds., Proceedings: Symposium on Ecology, Management, and Restoration of Intermountain Annual Rangelands, May 18-22, 1992, Boise, Idaho, General Technical Report No. INT-GTR-313: Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, p. 179-185.

205.    Belnap, J., 1994, Cryptobiotic soil crusts: Basis for arid land restoration (Utah): Restoration and Management Notes, v. 12, p. 85-86.

206.    Belnap, J., Harper, K. T., and Warren, S. D., 1994, Surface disturbance of cryptobiotic soil crusts: Nitrogenase activity, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll degradation: Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, v. 8, p. 1-8.

207.    Hof, M., Hammett, J., Rees, M., Belnap, J., Poe, N., Lime, D. W., and Manning, B., 1994, Getting a handle on visitor carrying capacity: A pilot project at Arches National Park: Park Science, v. 4, p. 11-13.

 

208.    Belnap, J., 1993, Genetic integrity: Why do we care? An overview of the issues: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, INT-GTR-315.

209.    Belnap, J., 1993, Recovery rates of cryptobiotic crusts: Inoculant use and assessment methods: Great Basin Naturalist, v. 53, p. 89-95.

210.    Belnap, J., and Gardner, J. S., 1993, Soil microstructure in soils of the Colorado Plateau: The role of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus: Great Basin Naturalist, v. 53, p. 40-47.

211.    Belnap, J., Sigal, L., Moir, W., and Eversman, S., 1993, Identification of sensitive species, Lichens as bioindicators of air quality: Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S. Department of the Interior, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, p. 67-88.

212.    Gladney, E. S., Ferenbaugh, R. W., and Belnap, J., 1993, Elemental Composition of Background Soils from Arches National Park, Utah: Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-12416-MS.

213.    Halvorson, W. L., Veirs, S., Shaw, B., Meko, D., McAuliffe, J., Hiebert, R., Betterton, E., and Belnap, J., 1993, Review of the Air Quality Biological Effects Research Program, Saguaro National Monument, Arizona: US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Western Region Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Arizona, National Park Service Technical Report NPS/WRUA/NRTR-93/09 (CPSU/UA No. 49).

214.    Belnap, J., Characteristics of cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts in long-term saguaro monitoring plots, in Proceedings Proceedings of the Symposium on Research in Saguaro National Monument, Tucson, Arizona, 23-24 January 1991 1992, National Park Service, Rincon Institute, and Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, p. 259-262.

215.    Belnap, J., 1992, Characteristics of cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts in long-term saguaro monitoring plots, in Stone, C. P., and Bellantoni, E. S., eds., Proceedings of the Symposium on Research in Saguaro National Monument, January 23-24, 1991, Tucson, Arizona: Tucson, Arizona, National Park Service, Rincon Institute, and Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, p. 259-262.

216.    Belnap, J., 1991, Effects of wet and dry pollutants on the physiology and elemental accumulation of cryptogamic crusts and selected lichens of the Colorado Plateau, Final Report, Denver, Colorado, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Air Quality Division, 45 p.:

217.    Belnap, J., 1991, Sensitivity of desert cryptogams to air pollutants: Soil crusts and rock lichens, in Mangis, D., Baron, J., and Stolte, K., eds., Acid Rain and Air Pollution in Desert Park Areas, Technical Report No. NPS/NRAQD/NRTR-91/02: Tucson, Arizona, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, p. 112-119.

218.    Belnap, J., 1991, Highlights of natural resources management: Soil crusts sound pollution alarm, Natural Resources Programs Report No. NPS/NRPO/NRR-91/03, Denver, Colorado, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 24 p.:

219.    Belnap, J., 1991, Effects of wet and dry pollutants on the physiology and elemental accumulation of cryptogamic crusts and selected lichens, Ph.D. dissertation: Brigham Young University.

220.    Belnap, J., 1990, Microphytic crusts: 'Topsoil' of the desert: Permaculture Drylands Journal, p. 4, 5, 14.

221.    Belnap, J., 1990, Microbiotic crusts: Their role in past and present ecosystems: Park Science: A Resource Management Bulletin, v. 10, p. 3-4.

222.    Belnap, J., 1990, Soil crusts sound pollution alarm: USDI, National Park Service, NPS/NRPO/NRR-91/03.

223.    Belnap, J., 1990, Effects of air pollutants on cold-desert cyanobacterial-lichen crusts and rock lichens: Chlorophyll degradation, electrolyte leakage and nitrogenase activity, Proceedings: Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants, Environmental Protection Agency/Air & Waste Management Association International Symposium, April 30-May 4, 1990, Raleigh, North Carolina: Raleigh, North Carolina, Environmental Protection Agency, p. 661-666.

224.    Belnap, J., and Harper, K. T., 1990, Effects of a coal-fired power plant on the rock lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma:  Chlorophyll degradation and electrolyte leakage: The Bryologist, v. 93, p. 309-312.




                           

My Science Topics


Science Topic
Subtopic
Ecology and Environmentdeserts
Ecology and Environmentgrasslands



My USGS Science Strategy Areas

Climate Variability & Change

Image of Current Focus for
  • Biological Soil Crusts: We have long studied the role of biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems, including their influence on soil fertility and stability. We also have extensively documented the effects of soil surface disturbance on soil crusts. A new study is addressing the effects of climate change (increased temperatures, altered precipitation regimes) on the structure and function of these soil crusts.
  • Invasive Annual Grasses: We are studying several aspects of invasive grasses. First, we are attempting to identify the factors that enable annual grasses to invade a site so that we can predict ahead of time what areas are susceptible to invasion. We are researching ways to suppress these grasses to facilitate restoration of natives. We are working on ways to carry out prescribed fires without enhancing the susceptibility of the burned areas to invasion. We are also documenting the effect of annual grass invasions on soil food webs, native plants, nutrient cycles, and biological soil crusts.
  • Effect of Grazing on Sediment and Runoff Production: Using a set of paired watersheds, we are continuing a 50-year study on the effects of grazing on water runoff and the production of sediment from a Mancos shale landscape. We will be also be comparing levels of salinity and selenium in the water and sediments leaving the grazed and ungrazed watersheds.
  • Mojave Desert: We are developing ways to predict the species composition of biological soil crusts in different areas of the Mojave desert. We are also looking at the effect of off-road vehicles on dust production from different soil types.
  • National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring: We are assisting the National Park Service in developing protocols for indicators of ecosystem health. These indicators include soil stability, soil fertility, vegetation cover and composition, and social trailing.

Contact Information

Jayne Belnap
2290 S. West Resource Blvd
Moab, UT 84532
jayne_belnap@usgs.gov
435-719-2333
435-719-2350 - Fax
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