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Carl Thornber

Research Geologist

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Short Biography

 

I have studied various aspects of the mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic rocks during 31 years as a USGS research geologist. My early experimental research focused on oxidation states, mineral reaction and crystallization rates in basaltic magmas and included calibration of a widely used basalt-glass geothermometer. Later, studies of Red Sea rift volcanics and xenoliths helped to elucidate processes of deep-lithospheric evolution in rifted continental terrane. More recently, my investigations of the petrology and geochemistry of the diverse eruptions of Kilauea and Mount St. Helens have provided information essential to assessing the magmatic activity responsible for both eruptions. 



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PUBLISHED PAPERS

Thornber, Carl R.; Orr Tim R.; Heliker, Christina; Hoblitt, Richard, P., in press,  "Petrologic Testament to Changes in Shallow Magma Storage and Transport during 30+ Years of Recharge and Eruption at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i", Chapter 8 in Hawaiian volcanoes, from source to surface, AGU Monograph, edited by R. J. Carey, M. P. Poland, V. Cayol, D. Weis.  

Rowe, M. C., C. R. Thornber, and T. Orr (in press), Primitive components, crustal assimilation, and magmatic degassing of the 2008 Kīlauea summit eruption, Chapter 18 in Hawaiian volcanoes, from source to surface, AGU Monograph, edited by R. J. Carey, M. P. Poland, V. Cayol, D. Weis.

Orr, T. R, M. P. Poland, M. R. Patrick, W. A. Thelen, A. J. Sutton, T. Elias, C. Parcheta, K. M. Wooten, R. C. Lee, C. R. Thornber (in press), Anatomy of an episode: Kīlauea’s 5–9 March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption and its relation to 30+ years of activity from Puʻu ʻŌʻō, Chapter 20 in Hawaiian volcanoes, from source to surface, AGU Monograph., edited by R. J. Carey, M. P. Poland, V. Cayol, and D. Weis. 

Helz, R. T., Clague D. A., Sisson, T. W. and Thornber, C. R., in press, Petrologic Insights into Basaltic Volcanism, Chapter 8 HVO Centennial US Geological Survey Professional Paper (Approved for Publication, April 2013).

Poland Michael P., Miklius, Asta, Sutton, A. Jeff and Thornber, Carl R. 2012, A surge in magma supply to Kīlauea Volcano during 2003 ‑2007 , Nature Geocience, Vol.5, p 295-300 DOI:10.10.38/NGEO1426

Wooten, K.M., Thornber, C.R., Orr, T.R., Ellis, J.F., and Trusdell, F.A., 2009, Catalog of tephra samples from Kilauea's summit eruption, March-December 2008:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1134, 26p. and database [http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1134/].

Rowe, M.C., Kent, A.J.R. and Thornber, C.R., 2008, Using amphibole phenocrysts to track vapor transfer during magma crystallization and transport: An example from Mount St. Helens, Washington, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 178, p. 593-607

Poland, M., Miklius A., Orr, T., Sutton J., Thornber, C., Wilson D., 2008, New episodes of Volcanism at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, EOS Trans AGU, 89 (5), p. 37-38

Thornber, C.R., Pallister, J.S., Rowe, M.C., McConnell, S., Herriott, T.M., Eckberg, A., Stokes, W.C., Johnson Cornelius, D., Conrey, R.M., Hannah, T., Taggert, J.E., Adams, M., Lamothe P.J., Budahn J.R., and Knaack, C.M., 2008, Catalog of Mount St. Helens 2004–2007 Dome Samples with Major- and Trace-element Chemistry: U.S. Geological.Survey Open File Report 2008-1130

Rowe, M.C., Thornber, C.R., Gooding, D.J. and Pallister,J.S., 2008, Catalog of Mount St. Helens 2004–2005 Tephra Samples with Major- and Trace-Element Chemistry: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008-1131

Thornber, C.R., Pallister, J.S., Lowers, H.A., Rowe, M.C., Mandeville, C.W., and Meeker, G.P., 2008, Chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology of amphibole in Mount St. Helens 2004–2006 dacite, chap. 32 of Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750 [28 p., plus 36 page digital appendix]

Streck, M.J., Broderick, C.A., Thornber, C.R., Clynne, M.A., and Pallister, J.S., 2008, Plagioclase populations and zoning in dacite of the 2004–2005 Mount St. Helens eruption; constraints for magma origin and dynamics, chap. 34 of Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750

Rowe, M.C., Thornber, C.R., and Kent, A.J.R., 2008, Identification and evolution of the juvenile component in 2004–2005 Mount St. Helens ash, chap. 29 of Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750

Reagan, M.K., Cooper, K.M., Pallister, J.S., Thornber, C.R., and Wortel, M., 2008, Timing of degassing and plagioclase growth in lavas erupted from Mount St. Helens, 2004–2005, from 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria, chap. 37 of Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750

Pallister, J.S., Thornber, C.R., Cashman, K.V., Clynne, M.A., Lowers, H.A., Mandeville, C.W., Brownfield, I.K., and Meeker, G.P., 2008, Petrology of the 2004–2006 Mount St. Helens lava dome—implications for magmatic plumbing and eruption triggering, chap. 30 of Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750

Kent, A.J.R., Rowe, M.C., Thornber, C.R., and Pallister, J.S., 2008, Trace element and Pb isotope composition of plagioclase from dome samples from the 2004–2005 eruption of Mount St Helens, Washington, chap. 35 of Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper

Cashman, K.V., Thornber, C.R., and Pallister, J.S., 2008, From dome to dust; shallow crystallization and fragmentation of conduit magma during the 2004–2006 dome extrusion of Mount St. Helens, Washington, chap. 19 of Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750

Harris, Andrew, Pirie, Dawn, Keith Horton, Harold Garbeil, Eric Pilger, Hans Ramm, Rick Hoblitt, Carl Thornber, Maurizio Ripepe, Emanuele Marchetti and Pasquale Poggi, 2005, DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 143, p. 335-360

Kent, A.J.R., Blundy, Jon, Cashman, K.V., Cooper, K.M., Donnelly, Carrie, Pallister, J.S., Reagan, Mark, Rowe, M.C., and Thornber, C.R., 2007, Vapor transfer prior to the October 2004 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Geology,  35, no. 3, p. 231–234, doi:10.1130/G22809A1

Mastin, Larry G., Christiansen, Robert L., Thornber, Carl R., Lowenstern, Jacob , Beeson, Melvin 2004, What makes hydromagmatic eruptions violent? Some insights from the Keanakako'i Ash, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i, Journal of Volcanology  and Geothermal Research Volume 137, p. 15-31

Roeder, Peter, Gofton, Emma, Thornber, Carl, 2006, Cotectic proportions of Olivine and Spinel in Olivine-Tholeiitic Basalt and Evaluation of Pre-Eruptive Processes, Journal of Petrology , v 47, p. 883-900

Roeder, P.L., Thornber, C.R., and Grant, A., 2004, Reply to Comment of Gerlach: ‘Morphology and composition of spinel in Pu`u `O`o (1996-1998), Kīlauea volcano, Hawai`i’—Enigmatic discrepancies between lava and gas-based fO2determinations of  Pu`u `O`o lava, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 134, p. 245-248

Thornber Carl R., Budahn, James R., Ridley, W. Ian, and Unruh, Daniel M., 2003, Trace Element and Nd, Sr, Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, Near-vent Eruptive Products, 1983 – 2001: U.S.G.S. Open File Report 03-493

Thornber, Carl R., Hon, Ken, Heliker, Christina and Sherrod, David A., 2003, A Compilation of Whole-Rock and Glass Major-Element geochemistry of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, near-vent eruptive products: January 1983 through September 2001: U.S.G.S. Open File Report 03-477

Thornber, Carl R., Heliker, Christina C., Sherrod, David R., Kauahikaua, James P., Miklius, Asta, Okubo, Paul G., Trusdell, Frank A., Budahn, James R., Ridley, W. Ian & Meeker Gregory P., 2003, Kīlauea east rift zone magmatism: An episode 54 perspective, Journal of Petrology, 44, p. 1525-1559

Thornber, Carl R., 2003, Magma Reservoir processes revealed by geochemistry of the ongoing Pu`u O`o – Kupaianaha eruption, in Heliker, C.C., Swanson, D.A. and Takahashi, T.J., The Pu`u O`o – Kupaianaha eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, the first twenty years: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1676, p 121-136

Roeder, P. L., Thornber, C., Poustovetov, A. & Grant A, 2003, Morphology and composition of spinel in Pu`u `O`o Lava (1996-1998), Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123, p. 245-265

Thornber ,Carl R.,  Sherrod, David R., Siems, David F., Heliker, C. Christina, Meeker, Gregory P., Oscarson, Robert L., and Kauahikaua, James P., 2002, Whole-rock and glass major-element geochemistry of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, near-vent eruptive products: September 1994 through September 2001:  U.S. Geological.Survey Open File Report OF02-17

Thornber, Carl R., 2001, Olivine-liquid relations of lava erupted by Kīlauea Volcano from 1994-1998: Implications for shallow magmatic processes associated with the ongoing east rift zone eruption;  In “Phase equilibria in basaltic systems”(Canil, D., Jamieson H., and Martin R., eds), Canadian  Mineralogist, Vol 39, p.323-350

Meeker G.P. and Thornber, Carl R., and  Hinkley, T.K., 2000, Natural “fly ash” from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i in Microbeam Analysis 2000: Institute of Physics Conference Series No. 165 ( eds. D.B. Williams and R. Shimizu), p. 309-310.

Thornber, Carl R., and Meeker,G.P., 2000, Microbeam analysis of lava from the current Kīlauea eruption: an integral part of eruption monitoring, in Microbeam Analysis 2000: Institute of Physics Conference Series No. 165, ( eds. D.B. Williams and R. Shimizu), p. 461-462 [Invited]

Meeker G.P. and Thornber, Carl R., 2000, A three dimensional view of basalt crystallization in “lava straws” from Kīlauea, in Microbeam Analysis 2000: Institute of Physics Conference Series No. 165, ( eds. D.B. Williams and R. Shimizu), p. 297-298 [75% ideas and writing, 15% data gathering]

Naka, J., E Takahashi and others (26 authors including Thornber, C.), 2000, Tectonomagmatic Processes Investigated at Deep-Water Flanks of Hawai`ian Volcanoes  EOS, Transactions of American Geophysical Union, 81,. p. 221, 226-227

Nakata, Jennifer S; Heliker, Christina; Sherrod, D R; Thornber, C.R., 2000, Hawai`ian Volcano Observatory; summary 97; Part 1, Seismic data, January to December 1997; with a chronological summary: U.S. Geological.Survey Open File Report OF 00-0408, 99 p.

Nakata, Jennifer S; Heliker, Christina; Sherrod, D R; Thornber, C.R., 2000, Hawai`ian Volcano Observatory; summary 98; Part 1, Seismic data, January to December 1998; with a chronological summary: U.S. Geological.Survey Open File Report OF 00-0406, 59 p.

Nakata, Jennifer S; Heliker, Christina, Thornber, C., Sherrod, D.R., 2000, Hawai`ian Volcano Observatory; summary 96; Part 1, Seismic data, January to December 1996, with a chronological summary: U.S. Geological.Survey Open File Report OF 00-0354, 84 p.

Nakata, Jennifer S; Heliker, Christina, Thornber, C., Reynolds, Jennifer, 2000, Hawai`ian Volcano Observatory; summary 95; Part 1, Seismic data, January to December 1995, with a chronological summary: U.S. Geological.Survey Open File Report OF 00-0353, 69 p.

Harris, A.J.L., Pilger, E., Flynn, L.P., Garbeil, H., Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Kauahikaua, J., and Thornber, C., 2001, Automated, high temporal resolution, thermal analysis of Kīlauea volcano, Hawai`i, using GOES-9 satellite data, Int. J. Remote Sensing, 22(6), 945-967. 

Harris Andrew J. L., Flynn, Luke P., Dean, Ken, Pilger, Eric, Wooster, Martin, Okubo, Chris, Mouginis-Mark, Peter, Garbiel, Harold, Thornber, Carl,  Rothery, Dave,  and Wright; Robert, 2000,  Real-time Satellite Monitoring of Volcanic Hot Spots.  Geophysical Monograph116: Remote Sensing of Volcanism, American Geophysical Union, p.139 –159 

Harris A. J. L. and Thornber, C.R., 1999, Complex effusive events at Kīlauea as documented by the GOES satellite and remote video cameras, Bulletin of Volcanology ,  61, p.382-395 

Cashman, K.V., Thornber, C.R.  and Kauahikaua, J.P., 1999, Cooling and  crystallization of lava in open channels, and the transition of Pahoehoe lava to `a`a, Bulletin of Volcanology, 61, p. 306 - 323. 

Kauahikaua, J., Cashman, K.V., Mattox, T.N., Hon, K.A., Heliker, C.C., Mangan, M.T., and Thornber, C.R., 1998, Observations on basaltic lava streams in tubes from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i:, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, p. 27,303 - 27,323 

Thornber, C.R., 1997, HVO/RVTS-1: A prototype remote video telemetry system  for monitoring the Kīlauea east rift zone eruption, 1997: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF97-537, 19 p.

Self, S., Cashman, K., Thornber, C., Keszthelyi, L., and Kauahikaua, J., 1997, Active and recent volcanism on Hawai`i (Trip 4), in Batiza, R., Lee, P., and McCoy, F., ed(s)., Molokai and Lanai, Maui, and Hawai`i field trip guide:  [s.l.], Geological Society of America, 14 p. [unpag.].  [Prepared for the 93rd annual Cordilleran section meeting, Geological Society of America, Kailua-Kona, HI, May 21-23,

Harris, A.J.L., Keszthelyi, L., Flynn, L.P., Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Thornber, C., Kauahikaua, J., Sherrod, D., Trusdell, F., Sawyer, M.W., and Flament, P., 1997, Chronology of the episode 54 eruption at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, from GOES-9 satellite data:  Geophysical Research Letters, 24, p 3281-3284  

Moore, R.B., Thornber, C.R., and Swanson, D.A., 1994, Preliminary geologic map of the Randle quadrangle, Cascade Range, Lewis County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-704, scale 1:24,000

Thornber, C.R., 1994, Ultramafic inclusions from Harrat Hutaymah: a record of mantle magmatism beneath north central Arabia:  in Kimberlites, Related Rocks and Mantle Xenoliths, (Meyer H.O.A. and Leonardos, O.H, eds.), 5th International Kimberlite Conference Proceedings Volume, Compania de Pasquisa de Recursos Minerais, Special Publication 94/A, Brazilia, p. 434-454

Thornber, Carl R., Quick, James E., Mayer, Adriano and Sinigoi, Silvano, 1993, Geologic constraints on metallogeny of magmatically underplated lower crust in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy.  USGS Open-File Report 93-504, 22p.

Thornber, C.R., 1992, Lithospheric-mantle magmatism associated with the rifting of continental terranes:  a case study of ultramafic inclusions and mafic alkaline magmas from Harrat Hutaymah:  in Ivera-Verbano Zone Workshop (Quick, J.E. and Sinigoi, S, eds.), U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1089, p. 18-19 [refereed short paper with figures and discussion]

Thornber, Carl R., 1992, The petrology, geochemistry and origin of ultramafic inclusions and mafic alkaline magmas from Harrat Hutaymah, Saudi Arabia.  Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral resources, Deputy Ministry of Mineral Resources, Jiddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Open-File Report USGS-OF-92-6, 15 data tables covering 99 pages, 36 figures, 7 photographs and 1 oversize map, 244 p.

Thornber, Carl Richard, 1992, The petrology, geochemistry and origin of ultramafic inclusions and mafic alkaline magmas from Harrat Hutaymah, Saudi Arabia:  Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 251p. (Map insert revised from Thornber, 1990)

Thornber, Carl R., 1990, Geologic map of Harrat Hutaymah, Saudi Arabia, with the petrologic classification and distribution of ultramafic inclusions (1:100,000 scale), USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2129

Behrendt, J.D., Hutchinson, D.R., Lee, M., Thornber, C.R., Trehue, A., Cannon, W., and Green, A., 1990, GLIMPCE seismic reflection evidence of deep-crustal and upper-mantle intrusions and magmatic underplating associated with the Midcontinent Rift system of North America:  Tectonophysics, 172, p. 595-615 [100% petrologic interpretations]

Helz, Rosalind Tuthill, and Thornber, Carl R., 1987, Geothermometry of Kīlauea Iki Lava Lake, Hawai`i:  Bulletin of Volcanology, 49, p. 651-668

Thornber, Carl R., and Huebner, J. Stephen, 1985, Dissolution of olivine in basaltic liquids:  Experimental observations and application: American Mineralogist, 70, p. 934-945 

Thornber, Carl R., and Huebner, J. Stephen, 1982, Techniques for using iron crucibles in experimental petrology: American Mineralogist, 67, p. 1144-1154

Thornber, Carl R., and Huebner, J.S., 1980, An experimental study of the thermal history of fragment laden "basalt" 77115: in Papike, J.J., and Merrill, R.B., eds., Proc. Conf. Lunar Highlands Crust, Pergamon, New York, p. 233-252

Thornber, C.R., Roeder, P.L., and Foster Robert J., 1980, The effect of composition on ferric-ferrous ratio in basaltic liquids at atmospheric pressure.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 44, p. 525-532

Thornber, Carl R., 1977, Factors controlling the ferric-ferrous ratios in basaltic liquids: Masters thesis, Queens University at Kingston, Canada, 101 p.

Thornber, Carl R., 1975, The mineral chemistry, petrology and genesis of "josephinite" and associated mineral phases:  Senior honors thesis, University of Massachusetts, 74 p.

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PUBLISHED ABSTRACTS AND EXTENDED ABSTRACTS

 

Konrad, K., Graham, D.W., Thornber, C.R. and Duncan, R.A., 2013, Helium and CO2 in Xenoliths and Lavas from Harrat Hutaymah, Saudi Arabia: Insight into Magmatic Sources, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013,

Swanson, Don; Fiske, Dick; Thornber, Carl, 2012, Vents and Dikes in the Heart of the Koa‘e Fault System at Kilauea. [Abs] American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012 Abstracts, abstract no. V33B-2862

Girard, Guillaume, Reagan, Mark K, Sims, Ken W. W,  Garcia, Michael O, Pietruszka, Aaron J and Thornber, Carl R., 2012, From mantle to ash cloud: quantifying magma ascent rates and degassing processes at Kilauea using short-lived U-series radionuclide disequilibria  [Abs] American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting Abstracts, abstract no. V13D-288

Hon, Ken, and Thornber, Carl, 2012,  Petrologic evidence for a large, actively convecting summit magma chamber within Kīlauea volcano, AGU Chapman conference on Hawaiian Volcanism, August 20-24, 2012

Thornber Carl R. and Orr Tim R., 2012, Petrologic Testament to Changes in Shallow Magma Storage and Transport Associated with Prolonged Recharge and Eruption at Kīlauea, AGU Chapman conference on Hawaiian Volcanism, August 20-24, 2012

Hampel, T.R., Rowe, M. C., Kent, A., Thornber, C.R., 2011, Amphibole trace elements as indicators of magmatic processes at Mount St. Helens[Abs] American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2011 Abstracts, abstract no. V53B-2608.

Poland, M.P, Miklius, A., Sutton, A.J., and Thornber, C.R., 2011, Magma supply to basaltic shields; an example from Hawaii and an opportunity for the Galapagos [abs.]: American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences, Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, July 25–30, Abstracts, p. 36

Thornber, C.R. Rowe, M.C., Adams, D.T., Rea, J.C.,  and Orr, T.R., 2010, Application of Microbeam Techniques to Identifying and Assessing Comagmatic Mixing Between Summit and Rift Eruptions at Kīlauea Volcano, [Abs] American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010 Abstracts, abstract no.V43F-1

Kauahikaua, J.P., Orr,T.R., Patrick, M. R., Swanson, D. S., Poland, M. P. , Miklius,A., Wilson,D., Sutton, A. J., Elias, T. Thornber, C. R.,  Wooten,K.,  2009, The 2008-2009 Eruption in Halema`uma`u Crater, Kilauea Volcano,  [Abs] American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009 Abstracts, abstract no V43G-2329

Hon, Ken, Dana Bove, Lopaka Lee and Carl Thornber, 2009, The Origin And Zonation Of Sublimates And Precipitates In Active Hawaiian Lava Tubes: 2009 Portland GSA Annual Meeting (18-21 October 2009) Paper No. 66-6

 

Rowe, M.C., Thornber, C.R. and  Orr, T.R., 2009,   Kīlauea 2008: Primitive Components and Degassing Recorded by Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions and Matrix Glasses, Goldschmidt Conference, June 2009, Davos, Switzerland, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. V73, Issue 13, Supplement 1, pA1126

 Wooten, K.M., Thornber, C.R., Swanson, D.A., Ellis, J.F., Orr, T.R., Patrick, M.R., Rausch, J., 2008, Eruption Products and Collection Methods for the 2008 Summit Eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 89(53), V11B-2020

Rowe, M. C., Kent, A. J., Cashman, K., Thornber, C.R., 2008,Tracking Volatile Movement and Fluxing in Magmatic Systems with Mineral Geochemistry: A Comparison Between two Mount St. Helens Eruptions, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 89 (53), V42A-04

Reagan, M.K., Cooper, K. ., Rowe, M.C., Sims, K.W., Thornber, C.R., 2008, U Decay-Series Evidence for the Eruption of Two Magma Batches Between 2004 and 2008 at Mount St. Helens, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 89(53), V43E-2193

Lanphere, M. A., Calvert, A. T., Scarpati, C, Melluso, L., Morra, V., Perrotta, A., Thornber, C., Cioni, R., Champion, D.E., 2008,  40Ar/39Ar ages of the older eruptive units of Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 89(53), V11B-2026

Thornber, C. and Trusdell F., 2008, Field, petrologic and experimental evidence for rapid transport of large magma volumes from great depths during the 1950 eruption of Mauna Loa, Hawai`i , IAVCEI General Assembly 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland

Smith , R., Sammonds , P.R., Tuffen, H., Meredith , P.G., Pallister J.S., Thornber, C.R., 2008,  Fracture controlled growth and deformation of lava domes: constraints from triaxial laboratory experiments , IAVCEI General Assembly 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland , Abst. No.

Poland , M.P., Miklius , A., Orr , T., Sutton , A.J., Thornber , C., Wilson, D.C., 2008, Causes and consequences of increased magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i, (Authorship in alphabetical order) IAVCEI General Assembly 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland

Poland , M.P., Dawson , P.B., Elias , T., Houghton , B., Kauahikaua , J., Lee , R.C., Miklius , A., Orr , T., Patrick , M.R., Sutton , A.J., Swanson , D.A., Thornber , C., Wilson, D.C., 2008,  The 2008 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`,  [Authorship in alphabetical order] IAVCEI General Assembly 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland

Thornber, C., Orr T., Lowers  H., Heliker C., Hoblitt R., 2007, An Episode 56 Perspective on Post-2001 Comagmatic Mixing Along Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone,  Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 88(52), V51H-04

Rowe, M.C., Kent Adam J., Thornber, Carl R., 2007, Volatile History in the Ongoing Mount St. Helens Eruption as Recorded by Amphibole and Feldspar Phenocrysts, International Conference on Evolution, Transfer and Release of Magmas and Volcanic Gases, Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan, April 22-27, 2007.

Pallister, J. S., Hoblitt, R., Denlinger, R., Sherrod, D., Cashman, K., Thornber, C., Moran, S, 2006, Structural Geology of the Mount St. Helens Fault-Gouge Zone - Field Relations Along the Volcanic Conduit - Wallrock Interface, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 87(52), V41A-1703

Cashman, K. V., Pallister, J. S.,Thornber, C.R., 2006, Extreme Decompression-induced Crystallization During the 2004-present Eruption of Mount St. Helens – Implications for Shallow Deformation Mechanisms, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 87(52), V23C-0625

Hart, G. L., Olin, P. H., Wolff, J. A., Thornber, C.R., Pallister, J. S., Streck, M. J., 2006, Sr Isotopic Variation of Plagioclase Crystals in Mount St. Helens, Southern Washington, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 87(52), V54B-04

Kent, A. J., Blundy, J., Cashman, K.,  Cooper, K. M., Donnelly, C., Pallister, J. S., Reagan, M., Rowe, M. C., Thornber, C.R., 2006, Lithium enrichment in plagioclase and melt inclusions from the October 2004 eruption of Mount St Helens, Washington: Evidence of pre-eruptive vapor transfer?, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 87(52), V23C-0626

Rowe, M. C., Kent, A. J.,Thornber, C.R., Lee, R. G, 2006, Trace Elements in Phenocryst Phases as a Record of Volatile Exsolution and Migration?: Mount St. Helens 2004-2005 Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 87(52), V23C-0627

Hinkley, T. K., Lamothe, P. J., Xiao, J., Meeker, G. P, Thornber, C.R., 2006, Volcanoes - the Ultimate Source of Trace Metal Enrichment of Atmospheric Dust, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 87(52), V53A-1738

McCann, V E, Barton, M, and Thornber, C.R, 2005, Complications in Determining Oxygen Fugacities From Olivine-Melt Equilibrium Illustrated by the Pu'u'O'o Lavas, Hawai`i, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 86(52), V31B-0615

Streck, M J, Broderick, C, Thornber, C.R., Clynne, M A and Pallister, J S, 2005, Plagioclase in Dacites of the Current Mt. St. Helens Eruption: Constraints for Magma Origin and Dynamics, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 86(52), V53D-1598

Mastin, L G, Sherrod, D R, Vallance, J W, Thornber, C.R., Ewert, J W,  2005,  The roles of magmatic and external water in the March 8 tephra eruption at Mount St. Helens as assessed by a 1-D steady plume-height model, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 86(52), V53D-1597

Pallister, J S and Thornber, C. R. (2005), Is the 2004-05 Eruption of Mount St. Helens Tapping New Dacite From the Deep Crust?, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 86(52), V52B -05

Streck, M.J.,  C.R. Thornber, M.A. Clynne, J.S. Pallister, 2005, Plagioclase zoning in dacites of the current Mt. St. Helens eruption, (Goldschmidt Conference, May 2005, Moscow, Idaho, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. V69 (10-1), A273

Rowe, Michael C., Carl R. Thornber and Adam J. Kent, 2005, Petrology and Geochemistry of Mount St. Helens Ash Before and During Continuous Dome Extrusion (Goldschmidt Conference, May 2005, Moscow, Idaho,  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. V69, (10-1), A272

Pallister, J.S., C.R. Thornber, M.A. Clynne, K.V. Cashman, K.A. McGee, 2005, Field geology and petrology of the 2004-2005 Mount St. Helens dome (Goldschmidt Conference, May 2005, Moscow, Idaho, , Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta V69,(10-1), A271

Kent, Adam J. R., Michael C. Rowe & Carl R. Thornber , 2005, LA-ICP-MS trace element and Pb-isotope analysis of Mt St Helens dome material from 1981-1985 and 2004-2005 eruptive episodes (Invited; Goldschmidt Conference, May 2005, Moscow, Idaho, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta V69, issue10, supplement 1, p. A272

Pallister, J.S., M.D. Rutherford, J.D. Devine, M.A. Clynne, C.R. Thornber, 2005, Geologic and petrologic framework for the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington Abstract for GSA Cordilleran Special Session dedicated to Cliff Hopson

Thornber, C., Rowe, M., Pallister, J., Gooding, D.,  Ramsey, D.,  Ewert, J.,  Couchman, M., Dzurisin, D., Hoblitt, R., Clynne, M., Lowenstern, J., Vallance, J., Cashman, K., 2004, A Collaborative Approach to Petrologic Monitoring of the Mt. Saint Helens 2004 Eruption, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(47), V53D-04A

Pallister, J. S., Cashman, K.,  Thornber, C., Dzurisin, D., Hoblitt, R., Myers, B., Linscott, J., Lowers, H., Brownfield, I., Plumlee, G., Meeker, G ., Wright, H., Reagan, M., Rowe, M., Vallance, J., Gardner, C.,  Scott, W., 2004, Magmatic plumbing of Mount St. Helens - petrologic insights, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(47), V31E-06

Kent, A. J,, Rowe, M. C., Thornber, C. R., and Grunder, A. L., 2004, Petrologic monitoring of Mt St. Helens through laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of ash and dome material, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(47), V53D-06A

Cashman, K., Thornber, C., Pallister, J.,  Hoblitt, R ,,Wright, H,,  Lowers, H, , Brownfield, I,,  Meeker, G, 2004, What's new? Identifying juvenile magma in early-erupted ash samples from Mount St. Helens, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(47), V53D-05A

Keszthelyi, L., Thornber, C., Harris, A., Sharma, K., 2004, Field Experiments on Active Kīlauea Lava Flows to Improve Cooling Models for Pahoehoe Lava Flows, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(47), V31D-10 [Session Chair, Invited]

Thornber, C., Keszthelyi, L., Lewis-Kenedi, C,, Cazeneuve, M , Goehring, D., 2004, Drilling an Active Pahoehoe Lava Flow, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(47),  V31D-09 [Session Chair: “Field Experiments and Models of Effusive Volcanic Eruptions”]

Thornber, C., Heliker C., Hoblitt, R., Orr, T. and Lisowski M., 2004, Petrologic Monitoring of Kīlauea Volcano: 1983 – 2004,  European Geosciences Union, 1st General Assembly in Nice, France,, April 2004, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 6, 04479 [Session Chair: “Petrologic Monitoring of Active Volcanoes”, Presented]

Hinkley, T., Lamothe,P., Wilson, S., and Thornber, C., 2003, Volcano emissions of trace metals, atmospheric deposition, and supply to biogeochemical cycles, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 84, VH12H-06

Thornber, Carl R. and Trusdell, Frank A., 2003, New perspectives on the 1950 Mauna Loa southwest rift zone eruption,  Abstract volume IAVCEI Cities on volcanoes meeting, Hilo, HI July 2003 p. 130. [Presented]

Thornber, Carl R., 2002, Magma reservoir processes revealed by geochemistry of the ongoing east rift zone eruption, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union,, 83, p. F1440 [Presented]

Roeder, P.L., Emma Gofton, and C.R.Thornber, 2001, Association of Spinel and Olivine in 5 Basaltic Lavas, [Abs] International Mineralogical Association meeting Edinburgh, Scotland

Meeker G.P., Thornber, C.R., Hinkley T.K., 2001,  Micro-geology of Kīlauea Volcano eruption products:  A key to crystallization of basaltic lava, Australian Conference on Electron Microscopy

Mastin, Larry G., Christiansen, Robert L., Thornber, Carl R., Lowenstern, Jacob B., Beeson, Melvin, 2001, Evidence for incomplete magma degassing during hydromagmatic explosions that produced the Keanakako’i Ash, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union,, 82, p. F1347-1348

Sharma, K., Keszthelyi, L., Thornber, C. and Self, S., 2000, Variations in cooling, crystallization textures and glass chemistry during emplacement of Kīlauea pahoehoe lobes, as constrained by in situ field experiments, Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 32(7), 51433

Sharma, K., Self, S., Thornber C., Keszthelyi, L. and  Thordarson, Th , 1999, Textural Variations Through Inflated Pahoehoe Flow Lobes from Kīlauea,  Hawai`i, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 80, p. 46

Thornber, Carl R., Meeker, Gregory P., Hon, Ken, Sutley, Stephen, Camara, Bobby,  Kauahikaua, Gregory P.,   Lewis, G. Brad, and Ricketts, Charlie, 1999, Fresh Kīlauea lava tubes: the inside story, Proceedings of the Big Island Science Conference, 15th meeting, 15, p. 30. [Invited, Presented]

Thornber, C.R.,  1999, Olivine-Liquid relationships in recent Kīlauea eruptive products, Geologic Association of Canada and Mineralogic Association of Canada [GACMAC] Annual Meeting, Sudbury, Ontario, May 26-28, 1999, Abstract 24, p.129

Andrew J. L. Harris, Flynn, Luke, P.,  Pilger, Eric,  Dean, Ken,  Thornber, Carl,  Mouginis-Mark, Peter,   Wooster, Martin, Okubo, Chris, Garbiel, Harold,  Rothery1, Dave and Wright; Robert, 1999, Operational systems for space borne monitoring of volcanic hot spots; Geological Society of  London and the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group, VMSG Annual Meeting, Birmingham, UK, Jan. 7-8, 1999

Camara, Bobby, Kauahikaua, Jim and Thornber, Carl, 1998, The Highcastle lava tube, in Selected Abstracts from the 1998 National Speleological Society Convention in Sewanee, Tennessee, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 60(3) p.189

Heliker C.C.,  Kauahikaua, J.P., Sherrod, D.R., and Thornber, C.R.,  1998, The Rise and Fall of Pu`u `O`o Cone, Kīlauea Volcano, 1983-1998, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 79(45), F956

Thornber, Carl R., Ridley. W. Ian., and Budahn, James, 1998,  Glass Thermometry and Trace-Element Systematics of  Pele’s Tears and Vent Spatter Collected at Pu`u `O`o Before, During and After the February 1, 1996 Eruptive Surge of Kīlauea Volcano: Clues to Shallow Magmatic Processes Along the East Rift Zone.  In Geist, D., Harpp, K. and Bohrson, W., convenors, ed(s)., Evolution of ocean island volcanoes, Penrose Conference Series,  Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, June 1998 Abstracts, The Geological Society of America and The Charles Darwin Research Station, IAVCEI (cosponsors), p. 71

Hinkley, T.K., Wilson, S.A., Lamothe, P.J., Landis, G.P., Finnegan, D.L., Gerlach, T.M., and Thornber, C.R., 1997, Metal emissions from Kīlauea--proportions, source strength, and contribution to current estimates of volcanic injection to the atmosphere. Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 78 (46), F803

Heliker, C.C., Sherrod, D.R., Thornber, C.R., and Kauahikaua, J.P., 1997, Kīlauea Volcano east rift zone eruption update: 1997 brings era of instability, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 78(46), S51

Harris, A.J.L., Keszthelyi, L., Flynn, L.P., Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Thornber C.R., Kauahikaua, J.P., Sherrod, D.R., and Trusdell, F.A., 1997, Near-real-time monitoring of effusive volcanic eruptions from geostationary satellites, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 29 (6), A-165.

Cashman, K.V., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Thornber, C.R., 1997, Cooling and crystallization in open lava channels, Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union,  78, (46),. F793.

Thornber, C.R., Sherrod, D., Heliker, C., Kauahikaua, J., Trusdell, F., Lisowski, M., and Okubo, P., 1997, Kīlauea's ongoing eruption: Napau Crater revisited after 14 years, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 78,(17), S329  [Session Chair: “Monitoring and Predicting Volcanoes”]

Friedman, R., Taylor, J., Keszthelyi, L., and Thornber, C., 1996, Petrographic Textures as Indicators of Kīlauea Lava Flow Emplacement History, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 77, p. 807

Thornber, C.R., Heliker, C.C., Reynolds, J.R., Kauahikaua, J., Okubo, P., Lisowski, M., Sutton, J.,  and Clague, D., 1996, The eruptive surge of February 1, 1996 A Highlight of Kīlauea’s ongoing East Rift Zone eruption. Eos Transactions, AGU, v77, p. 798 

Thornber, C.R., Mattox, T.N., Sutton, A.J., Elias, T., Okubo, P.,  Tomori, A. and Denlinger, R., 1995, The eruptive pulse of Kīlauea Volcano as revealed by continuous temperature monitoring of an active lava tube, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 76, p. 681

Sutton, A.J., Elias, T. and Thornber, C.R.,1995, A simple continuous temperature monitor for active volcanoes, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 76, p. 670 [Presented]

Heliker, C.C., Thornber, C.R., Mattox, T.N. and Kauahikaua, J.P., 1995, Kīlauea Volcano east rift zone eruption update:  still flowing after all these years, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 76, p. 667 [Presented]

Thornber, C.R., 1991, Hot, cold, wet and dry Hutaymah ultramafic inclusions:  a record of mantle magmatism beneath the Arabian Shield and flanking the Red Sea rift:  Extended Abstracts, 5th International Kimberlite Conference, Araxa, Brazil, Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais, Special Publications 2/91, p. 423-425  [Extended Abstract]]

Behrendt, J.C., Hutchinson, D.R., Lee, M., Trehue, A., Thornber, C.R., Cannon, W., and Green, A., 1989, Seismic reflection (GLIMPCE) evidence of deep crustal and upper mantle intrusions and magmatic underplating associated with the Midcontinental rift system of North America, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 70, p. 273

Pallister, John S., Thornber, Carl R., and Hegner, Ernst, 1989, Red Sea Evolution:  An ArabianView, European Geophysical Society , Red Sea Workshop, Barcelona (March, 1989)

Thornber, C.R., 1988, Hutaymah pyroxenite xenoliths: Clues to the character of subcontinental mantle during early stage Red Sea rifting , Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 20, p. 367

Behrendt, J.C., Hutchinson, D.R., Trehu, A., Cannon, W., Lee, M., Thornber, C.R., Green, A., Milkereit, B., and Spencer, C., 1988, Seismic reflection (GLIMPCE) evidence of deep crustal intrusions and magmatic underplating associated with the Midcontinent Rift System of North America, Abstracts of Symposium on Deep Crustal Reflection, Canberra, Australia

Thornber, Carl R., and Pallister, John S., 1985, Mantle xenoliths of Northern Saudi Arabia, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 63, p. 393

Thornber, Carl R., and Huebner, J. Stephen, 1982, Dissolution rates of olivine in basaltic liquids, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 63, p. 452-453

Helz, R.T., and Thornber, C.R., 1981, Geothermometry of Kīlauea Iki Lava Lake, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 62, p. 1073

Huebner, J.S., Thornber, C.R., and Sanford, R.F., 1979, Thermal history of fragment laden "basalt" 77115, Conference on the Lunar Highlands Crust, p. 87-89 [Extended Abstract, Presented]

Duba, A., Dennison, M., Irving, A.J., Thornber, C.R., and Huebner, J.S., 1979, Electric conductivity of aluminous orthopyroxene:  Lunar and Planetary Science X [abs. volume], p. 318-319

Thornber, C.R., and Roeder, P.L., 1978, Effect of composition on the valence of iron in basaltic liquids, Lunar and Planetary Science IX, p. 1166-1168 [Extended Abstract]

 

Thornber, Carl R., and Haggerty, S.E., 1976, The origin and geochemistry of josephinite, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 57, p. 355


Petrologic Investigations of Volcanism

 

I study the petrology of active and potentially active volcanoes to understand more about magma generation, storage, transport and eruption mechanisms. I also conduct laboratory experiments on natural volcanic samples at high temperatures and fO2-controlled conditions to establish eruption-specific monitoring parameters that elucidate shallow storage and transport characteristics (e.g., glass thermometry, phase relations and dissolution kinetics).

 


Carl R. Thornber, PhD

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Contact Information

Carl Thornber
1300 SE Cardinal Court Bldg. 10
Vancouver, WA 98683
360-993-8901
360-993-8980 - Fax
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