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Ward Sanford

Hydrologist

Contact Info


Short Biography

Dr. Ward Sanford received a B.S. from Purdue University in Geology in 1983 and a PhD in Hydrogeology from Penn State University in 1987.  He has been with the USGS Water Resources Discipline's National Research Program full time since 1987.  He has been active in research on problems of regional groundwater flow and transport throughout the United States and the world.   Field areas have included West Texas, Central New Mexico, Virginia, Thailand, Hungary, Central America, and the United Arab Emirates.  He has been a consultant to the U. S. State Department and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).  He received the Geological Society of America Young Scientist Award (Donath Medal) in 1995 and the National Ground Water Association John Hem Award in 2000.   He is coauthor of the widely used graduate level textbook entitled "Groundwater in Geologic Processes".  He is a senior fellow of the Geological Society of America, and a member of the American Geophysical Union, the National Ground Water Association, and the International Association of Hydrogeologists.






Sanford, W.E., Doughten, M.W., Coplen, T.B., Hunt, A.G., and Bullen, T.D., 2013, Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous seawater from the Chesapeake Bay crater.  Nature, v. 503, no. 7455, p. 252-256.

 

Sanford, W.E., and Pope, J.P., 2013, Quantifying groundwater's role in delaying improvements to Chesapeake Bay water quality.  Environmental Science & Technology.  dx.doi.org/10.1021/es401334k, 8 p.

 

Sanford, W.E., 2013, Chapter 10: Numerical flow models and their calibration using tracer-based ages, In Isotope Methods for Dating Old Groundwater, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p. 245-258.

 

Plummer, L.N., and Sanford, W. E., 2013, Chapter 12: Case study Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, USA, In Isotope Methods for Dating Old Groundwater, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p. 273-295.

 

Plummer, L. N., Sanford, W. E., and Glynn, P. D., 2013, Chapter 2: Characterization and conceptualization of groundwater flow systems, In Isotope Methods for Dating Old Groundwater, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p. 5-19.

 

Torgerson, T., Purtschert, R., Phillips, F. M., Plummer, L. N., Sanford, W. E., and Suckow, A., 2013, Chapter 3: Defining groundwater age, In Isotope Methods for Dating Old Groundwater, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p. 21-32.

 

Sanford, W. E, and Selnick, D. L., 2013, Estimation of evapotranspiration across the conterminous United States using a regression with climate and land-cover data: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 49, p. 217-230.

 

Sanford, W. E., Pope J. P., Selnick, D. L., and Stumvoll, R. F., 2012, Simulation of groundwater flow in the shallow aquifer system of the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware:  USGS Open-File Report 2012-1140, 58 p.

 

Sanford, W. E., Nelms, D. L., Pope J. P., and Selnick, D. L., 2012, Quantifying components of the hydrologic cycle in Virginia using chemical hydrograph separation and multiple regression analysis.  USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5198, 152 p.

 

Pearson, S. C. P., Kiyosugi, L., Lehto, H. L., Saballos, J. A., Connor, C. B., and Sanford, W. E., 2012, Integrated geophysical and hydrothermal models of flank degassing and fluid flow at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.  Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.  v. 13, no. 5, Q05011, 21 p.

 

Cockell, C. S., Voytek, M. A., Gronstal, A. L., Finster, K., Kirshtein, J. D., Howard, K., Reitner, J., Gohn, G. S., Sanford, W. E., Horton, J. W. Jr., Kallmeyer, J., Kelly, L., and Powars, D. S, 2012, Impact disruption of the deep subsurface biosphere.  Astrobiology, v. 12, p. 231-246.

 

Sanford, W. E., 2011, Calibration of models using groundwater age.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 19, p. 13-16.

 

Sanford, W. E., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., and Herzceg, A. L., 2011, Preface: Insights from environmental tracers in groundwater systems.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 19, p. 1-3.

 

Sanford, W. E., 2010, Groundwater Hydrology--Coastal Flow.  Nature Geosciences, v. 3, p. 671-672.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Pope, J. P., 2010, Current challenges in forecasting saltwater intrusion:  Lessons from the Eastern Shore of Virginia.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 1, p. 73-93.

 

Sanford, W. E., Voytek, M. A., and Cozarrelli, I. M., 2009, Porewater chemistry of the ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep core hole, implications for paleohydrology, water resources, and microbial habitat:  In, Gohn et al, eds., The ICDP-USGS Deep Drilling Project in the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure: Results from the Eyreville core holes. Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 458, p. 867-890.

 

Malinconico, M. L., Sanford, W. E., and Horton, J. W., 2009, Post-impact thermal history of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, based on downhole vitrinite reflectance data, ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep core holes and Cape Charles test holes:  In, Gohn et al, eds., The ICDP-USGS Deep Drilling Project in the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure: Results from the Eyreville core holes. Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 458, p. 905-930.

 

Rostad, C., and Sanford, W. E., 2009, Use of organic geochemical analysis as a contamination tracer in the deep drillhole of the ICDP-USGS at the Chesapeake crater:  In, Gohn et al, eds., The ICDP-USGS Deep Drilling Project in the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure: Results from the Eyreville core holes. Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 458, p. 891-904.

 

Cockell, C. S., Gronstal, A. L., Voytek, M. A., Kirshtein, J. D., Finster, K., Sanford, W. E., Glamoclija, M., Gohn, G. S., Powars, D. S., and Horton, J. W., Jr., 2009, Microbial abundance in the deep subsurface of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater: Relationship to lithology and impact processes.  In, Gohn et al, eds., The ICDP-USGS Deep Drilling Project in the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure: Results from the Eyreville core holes. Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 458, p. 941-950.

 

Sanford, W. E., Pope, J. P., and Nelms, D. L., 2009, Simulation of groundwater-level and salinity changes in the Eastern Shore, Virginia.  USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5066, 126 p.

 

Hughes, J. D., Vacher, H. L., and Sanford, W. E., 2009, Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan Aquifer system, USA.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 17, p. 793-815.

 

Pearson S. C. P., Connor, D. B., and Sanford, W. E., 2008, Response of low temperature fumaroles to volcanic activity at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua.  Geology, v. 12, p. 951-954.

 

Gohn, G. S., Koeberl, C., Miller, K. G., Reimold, W. U., Browning, J. V., Cockell, C. S., Horton, J. W., Jr., Kenkmann, T., Kulpecz, A. A., Powars, D. S., Sanford, W. E., and Voytek, M. A., 2008, Deep drilling into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure.  Science, v. 320, p. 1,740-1,745.

 

Hughes, J. D., Vacher, H. L., and Sanford, W. E., 2007, Three-dimensional flow in the Florida platform:  Theoretical analysis of Kohout convection at its type locality.  Geology, v. 35, no. 7, p. 663-666.

 

Gohn, G. S., Sanford, W. E., Powars, D. S., Horton, J. W. Jr., Edwards, L. E., Morin, R. H. and Self-Trail, J. M., 2007, Site report for USGS test holes drilled at Cape Charles, Northampton County, Virginia, in 2004.  USGS Open-File Report 2007-1094, 22 p.

 

Sanford, W., Langevin, C., Polemio, M., and Povinec. P. (Eds.), 2007, A new focus on groundwater-seawater interactions.  IAHS Publication 312, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 344 p.

 

Wood, W. W., and Sanford, W. E., 2007, Atmospheric bromine flux from the coastal Abu Dhabi sabkhat:  A ground-water mass balance investigation.  Geophysical Research Letters, v. 34, L14405, doi:10.1029/2007GL029922.

 

McNiel, R. E., Sanford W. E., Connor, C. B., Sandberg, S. K. and Diez, M., 2007, Investigation of the groundwater system at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, using transient electromagnetics and numerical simulation.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 166, p. 217-232.

 

Sanford, W. E., Caine, J. Wilcox, D. A, Nicholas, J. R. and McWreath, H. C., 2006, Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U. S. Geological Survey. USGS Circular 1293, 21 p.

 

Ingebritsen, S. E., Sanford, W. E. and Neuzil, C. E., 2006, Groundwater in Geologic Processes, 2nd Edition.  Cambridge University Press, New York, 536 p.

 

Gohn, G. S., Koeberl, C., Miller, K. G., Reimold, W. U., Cockell, C. S., Horton, J. W., Sanford, W. E., and Voytek. M. A., 2006, Chesapeake Bay impact structure drilled.  EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 87, no. 35, p. 349, 355.

 

Wood. W. W., Sanford, W. E., and Frape, S. K, 2005, Chemical openness and potential for the misinterpretation of the solute environment of coastal sabkhat.  Chemical Geology, v. 215, p. 361-372.

 

Hughes, J. D., Sanford, W. E. and Vacher, H. L., 2005, Numerical simulation of double-diffusive finger convection:  Water Resources Research, v. 41, no.1, W01019, 16 p.

 

Sanford, W. E., 2005, Simulation of the hydrothermal response to the Chesapeake Bay bolide impact, Geofluids, v. 5, p. 185-201.

 

Jones, G. D., Whitaker, F. F., Smart, P. L., Sanford, W. E., 2004, Numerical analysis of seawater circulation in carbonate platforms: II. The dynamic interaction between geothermal and brine reflux circulation.  American Journal of Science, v. 304, p. 250-284.

 

Plummer, L. N, Bexfield, L. M., Anderholm, S. K., Sanford, W. E., and Busenberg, E., 2004, Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group Aquifer System, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico.  USGS WRI 03-4131, 395 p.

 

Sanford, W. E., Plummer, L. N., McAda, D. P., Bexfield, L. M., and Anderholm, S. K., 2004, Hydrochemical Tracers in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, USA:  2. Calibration of a Groundwater Model.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 12., p. 389-407.

 

Plummer, L. N, Bexfield, L. M., Anderholm, S. K., Sanford, W. E., and Busenberg, E., 2004, Hydrochemical Tracers in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, USA:  1. Conceptualization of Groundwater Flow.  Hydrogeology Journal v. 12, p. 359-388.

 

Sanford W. E., Gohn, G. S., Powars, D. S., Horton, J. W. Jr., Edwards, L. E., Self-Trail, J. M., Morin, R. H., 2004, Drilling the central crater of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure:  A first look.  EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 85, p. 369-377.

 

Hughes, J. D and Sanford, W. E., 2004, SUTRA-MS—A version of SUTRA modified to simulate heat multiple-solute transport.  USGS Open-File Report 2004-1207, 141 p.

 

Sanford, W. E., Plummer, L. N., McAda, D. P., Bexfield, L. M., and Anderholm, S. K., 2004, Use of Environmental Tracers to estimate parameters for a predevelopment ground-water-flow model of the Middle Rio Grande Basin.  USGS WRI 03-4286, 102 p.

 

Sanford, W. E., 2003, Heat flow and brine evolution following the Chesapeake Bay Bolide Impact. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 78-79, p. 243-247.

 

Sanford, W. E., 2002, Recharge and Groundwater Models:  An Overview.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 10, p. 110-120.

 

Jones, G. D., Whitaker, F. F., Smart, P. L., and Sanford, W. E., 2002, Fate of reflux brines in carbonate platforms.  Geology, v. 30, p. 371-374.

 

Wood, W. W., Sanford, W. E., and Al Habshi, A. R., 2002, Source of solutes to the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi.  Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 114, p. 259-268.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Wood, W. W., 2001, Hydrology of the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 9, p. 358-366.

 

Wilson, A. M., Sanford, W. E., Whitaker, F. F., and Smart, P. L., 2001, Spatial Patterns of diagenesis during geothermal circulation in carbonate platforms:  American Journal of Science, v. 301, p. 727-752.

 

Wilson, A., Sanford, W., Whitaker, F. and Smart, P., 2000,  Geothermal convection: mechanism for dolomitization at Enewetak Atoll?:  Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 69-70, no. 1-3, p. 41-45.

 

Jones, G., Whitaker, F., Smart, P. and Sanford, W., 2000,  Numerical Modeling of geothermal and reflux circulation in Enewetak Atoll: implications for dolomitization.  Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 69-70, no. 1-3, p. 71-75.

 

Ingebritsen, S. E., and Sanford, W. E., 1998, Groundwater in Geologic Processes, 1st Edition.  Cambridge University Press, New York, 341 p.

 

Sanford, W. E., Whitaker, F. F., Smart, P.L. and Jones, G., 1998, Numerical Analysis of seawater circulation in carbonate platforms: 1. Geothermal convection.  American Journal of Science, v. 298, p. 801-828.

 

Sanford, W. E., 1997, Correcting for diffusion in carbon-14 dating of ground water.  Ground Water, v. 35, p. 357-361.

 

Konikow, L. F., Sanford, W. E., and Campbell, P. J., 1997, Constant-concentration boundary conditions:  Lessons from the HYDROCOIN variable-density groundwater benchmark problem.  Water Resources Research, v. 33, p. 2,253-2,261.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Buapeng, S., 1996, Assessment of a groundwater flow model of the Bangkok basin, Thailand, using carbon-14-based ages and paleohydrology.  Hydrogeology Journal, v. 4, p. 26-40.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Wood, W. W., 1995, Paleohydrologic record from lake brine on the southern High Plains, Texas.  Geology, v. 23, p. 229-232.

 

Sanford, W. E., Konikow, L. F., Rowe, G. L., and Brantley, S. L., 1995, Ground-water transport of crater-lake brine at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 64, p. 269-293.

 

Wood, W. W., and Sanford, W. E., 1995, Chemical and isotopic methods for quantifying ground-water recharge in arid and semi-arid environments.  Ground Water , v. 33, p. 458-468.

     

Wood, W. W., and Sanford, W. E., 1995, Eolian transport and ground-water solutes in arid and semi-arid areas.  Water Resources Research vol. 30, p. 3,121-3,130.

 

Wood, W. W., Sanford, W. E., and Reeves, C. C., 1992, Large lake basins of the Southern High Plains:  Ground-water control of their origin?  Geology, v. 20, p. 535-538.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Wood, W. W., 1991, Brine evolution and mineral deposition in hydrologically open evaporite basins.  The American Journal of Science, v. 291, p. 687-710

 

Wood, W. W., and Sanford, W. E., 1990, A model for ground-water control of continental evaporite deposition.  Economic Geology, v. 85, p. 1226-1235.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Konikow, L. F., 1989, Simulation of calcite dissolution and porosity changes in saltwater mixing zones in coastal aquifers:  Water Resources Research, v. 24, p. 655-667.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Konikow, L. F., 1989, Porosity development in coastal carbonate aquifers.  Geology, vol. 17, p. 249-252.

 

Sanford, W. E., and Konikow, L. F., 1985, A two-constituent solute-transport model for ground water having variable density.  USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report.  85-4279, 88 p.   

 

 




                           

My Science Topics


Science Topic
Subtopic
Water Resourcesaquifers
Water Resourcesdrainage basins
Water Resourcesmovement and recharge
Water Resourceswater budget
Environmental Issuesground-water quality
Environmental Issuesnonpoint-source pollution
Geologic Processeswater chemistry
Hydrologic Processesground-water flow
Hydrologic Processessaltwater intrusion



My USGS Science Strategy Areas

Understanding Ecosystems & Predicting Ecosystems Change

A Water Census of the United States

Regional Groundwater Flow and Transport

Groundwater Transport of Nitrate within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

Using Dissolved Gases as Environmental Tracers

Hydrogeology of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater

Water Quantity Assessment for Virginia Using Chemical Hydrograph Separation

Modeling Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

Using Environmental Tracers to Help Constrain Groundwater Models

Groundwater-Volcano Interaction

Groundwater Dynamics of Sabkhas (Salt Flats) and other evaporite deposits

Modeling Reactive-Transport in Groundwater Systems

 


Contact Information

Ward Sanford
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA 20192-0002
wsanford@usgs.gov
703-648-5882
703-648-5274 - Fax
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