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Pam Schofield

Research Fishery Biologist

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N.A. Bernal, D.L. DeAngelis and P.J. Schofield.  Predicting spatial and temporal distribution of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) in Biscayne Bay through habitat suitability modeling.  Biological Invasions

 Schofield, P.J. and W.F. Loftus.  2015.  Non-native fishes in Florida freshwaters: a literature review and synthesis.  Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 25: 117–145.

 Scyphers, S.B., S.P. Powers, J.L. Akins, J.M. Drymon, C.W. Martin, Z.H. Schobernd, P.J. Schofield,  R.L. Shipp and T.S. Switzer.  2014.  The role of citizens in detecting and responding to a rapid marine invasion.  Conservation Letters  DOI: 10.1111/conl.12127

 Schofield, P.J., L. Akins, D.R. Gregoire-Lucente & R.J. Pawlitz.  2014.  Invasive lionfish use a diversity of habitats in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2014–3032,

 Huge, D.H., P.J. Schofield, C.A. Jacoby and T.K. Frazer.  2013.  Total mercury concentrations in lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA.  Marine Pollution Bulletin  78: 51-55.

 Schofield, P.J., D. H. Slone, W.F. Loftus and D.R. Gregoire.  2013. Effects of a non-native cichlid fish (African jewelfish, Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage 1880) on a simulated Everglades aquatic community.  Hydrobiologia 722:171-182.

  Schofield P.J. & D.H. Pecora.  2013.  Croaking gourami, Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier, 1831), in Florida, USA. BioInvasions Records 2:247–251.

 Ruttenberg, B.I., P.J. Schofield, J.L. Akins, A. Acosta, M.W. Feeley, J. Blondeau, S.G. Smith & J.S. Ault.  2012.  Rapid Invasion of the Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) in the Florida Keys, USA: evidence from multiple pre- and post-invasion data sets.  Bulletin of Marine Science 88: 1051-1059.

 Lowe, M.R., W. Wu, M.S. Peterson, N.J. Brown-Peterson, W.T. Slack, and P.J. Schofield.  2012.  Survival, growth and reproduction of non-native Nile tilapia II: Fundamental niche projections and invasion potential in the northern Gulf of Mexico.  PLoS One 7: e41580.

 Rhyne, A.L., M.F. Tlusty, P.J. Schofield, L. Kaufman, J.A. Morris Jr, and A.W. Bruckner.  2012.  Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.  PLoS ONE 7(5): e35808. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035808

 Hart, K.M., P.J. Schofield and D.R. Gregoire.  2012.  Experimentally derived salinity tolerance of hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) from the Everglades, Florida (USA). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 413: 56-59.

 Schofield, P.J. and D.H. Huge.  2011.  Low-temperature tolerance of two non-native fishes (Hoplosternum littorale [Hancock 1828], Cichlasoma bimaculatum [Linnaeus 1758]) established in south Florida USA.  Florida Scientist 74: 73-83.

Schofield, P.J., M. S. Peterson, M. R. Lowe, N. J. Brown-Peterson and W. T. Slack.  2011. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758).I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities.  Marine and Freshwater Research 62: 439-449.

 Schofield, P.J.  2010.  Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.  Aquatic Invasions 5: S117-S122.

 Langston, J.N., P.J. Schofield, J. E. Hill and W. F. Loftus.  2010.  Salinity tolerance of the African jewelfish Hemichromis letourneuxi, a non-native cichlid in south Florida, USA.  Copeia 2010: 475-480.

 Lorenz, O.T., M.T. O’Connell and P.J. Schofield.  2010.  Aggressive interactions between the invasive Rio Grande cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) and native bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), with notes on redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus).  Journal of Ethology 29: 39-46.

 Paterson, J.A., L.J. Chapman & P.J. Schofield.  2009.  Intraspecific variation in gill morphology of juvenile Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda.  Environmental Biology of Fishes. Published online: 8 April 2010.  DOI: 10.1007/s10641-010-9600-6.

 Saylor, R.K. D.L. Miller, M.W. Vandersea, M.S. Bevelhimer, P.J. Schofield & W.A. Bennett.  2010.  Epizootic ulcerative syndrome caused by Aphanomyces invadans in captive bullseye snakehead Channa marulius collected from south Florida, USA.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 88: 169-175.

 Schofield, P.J., W.F. Loftus, R.M. Kobza, M.I. Cook & D.H. Slone.  2009.  Tolerance of nonindigenous cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Hemichromis letourneuxi) to low temperature: laboratory and field experiments in south Florida.  Biological Invasions 12: 2441-2457..



Schofield, P.J., J.A. Morris, Jr. & L. Akins.  2009.  Field Guide to Nonindigenous Marine Fishes of Florida.  NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 92.  Available online:


Schofield, P.J.  2009.  Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea.  Aquatic Invasions 4: 473-479. Available online:


Schofield, P.J. & L.G. Nico.  2009.  Salinity tolerance of non-native Asian swamp eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Florida, USA: comparison of three populations and implications for dispersal.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 85: 51-59.


Schofield, P.J., W.F. Loftus & J.A. Fontaine.  2009.  Salinity effects on hypoxia tolerance by the non-native Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) from Florida Everglades wetlands.  Journal of Fish Biology 74: 1245-1258.


Schofield, P.J., W.T. Slack, M.S. Peterson & D.R. Gregoire.  2007.  Assessment and control of an invasive aquaculture species:  An update on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in coastal Mississippi after Hurricane Katrina.  Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings 49: 9-15.


Schofield, P.J., W.F. Loftus & M.E. Brown.  2007.  Hypoxia tolerance of two centrarchid sunfishes and an introduced cichlid in karstic Everglades wetlands of southern Florida, U.S.A.  Journal of Fish Biology 71 Sup D: 87-99.


Schofield, P.J. & L.G. Nico.  2007.  Toxicity of 5% rotenone to nonindigenous Asian swamp eels.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27: 453-459.


Schofield, P.J. , M.E. Brown & P.F. Fuller.  2006.  Salinity tolerance of goldfish, Carassius auratus, a non-native fish in the United States.  Florida Scientist 69: 258-268.


Schofield, P.J., J.D. Williams, L.G. Nico, P.L. Fuller & M.R. Thomas.  2005.  Foreign Nonindigenous Carps and Minnows (Cyprinidae) in the United States:  A Guide to their Identification, Distribution, and Biology.  U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5041, Tallahassee, Florida.  103 pp.  Available online:


Schofield, P.J. & A.B. Powell.  2005.  Cichlidae.  pp 1819-1822 In: Richards, W. J., Ed.  Early stages of Atlantic fishes: an identification guide for the western central North Atlantic.  U.S. Department of Commerce. 


 Schofield, P.J.  2005.  Predation vulnerability of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus; Gobiosoma robustum) is not related to presence of seagrass.  Florida Scientist 68: 25-34.


Schofield, P.J.  2004.  Influence of salinity, competition and food supply on the growth of Gobiosoma robustum and Microgobius gulosus from Florida Bay, U.S.A.  Journal of Fish Biology 64: 820-832.


Schofield, P.J.  2003.  Salinity tolerance of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus, Gobiosoma robustum) in Florida Bay (USA).  Gulf of Mexico Science 21: 86-91.


Schofield, P.J.  2003.  Habitat selection of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus, Gobiosoma robustum): influence of structural complexity, competitive interactions and presence of a predator.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 288: 125-137.


Schofield, P.J. & S.T. Ross.  2003.  Habitat selection of the channel darter, Percina (Cottogaster) copelandi: a surrogate for the imperiled pearl darter, Percina aurora.  Journal of Freshwater Ecology 18: 249-257. 



Chapman, L.J., C.A. Chapman, P.J. Schofield, J.P. Olowo, L.S. Kaufman, O. Seehausen & R. Ogutu-Ohwayo.  2003.  Fish faunal resurgence in Lake Nabugabo, East Africa.  Conservation Biology 17: 500-511.


Schofield, P.J. & L.J. Chapman.  2000.  Hypoxia tolerance of introduced Nile perch:  Implications for survival of indigenous fishes in the Lake Victoria basin.  African Zoology 35: 35-42.


Schofield, P.J. & L.J. Chapman.  1999.  Interactions between Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and other fishes in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 55: 343-358. 


Schofield, P.J. & G.H. Burgess.  1997.  Etmopterus robinsi: A new species of deep-water dogshark (Elasmobranchii, Etmopteridae) from the Caribbean and Western Atlantic with a redescription of E. hillianus.  Bulletin of Marine Science 60: 1060-1073.

Research Focus

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Aquatic ecology, including effects of environmental alterations on physiology, behaviour, feeding, predator-prey interactions and habitat selection.  Special interest in ecology of non-indigenous species.  Experience in marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats.

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Contact Information

Pam Schofield
7920 NW 71St Street
Gainesville, FL 32653
352-378-4956 - Fax
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