USGS Professional Pages
Dr. Noel B. Pavlovic is a research ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, stationed at the Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station in Porter, Indiana, where he has worked for 30 years. He received his PhD in biological sciences from the University of Illinois at Chicago, MSc. in ecology from the University of Tennessee, and BS in biology from Earlham College. His dissertation focused on the biology and demography of fame flower (Phemeranthus rugospermum), a Midwestern endemic succulent plant. He has studied fire effects on the structure, phenology, and floral and faunal composition of Midwest oak savannas. His research on oriental bittersweet focuses on two areas; 1) the potential for hybridization between the invasive Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) and the native American bittersweet (C. scandens) and 2) fire effects on the invasion and spread of Oriental bittersweet. He has also conducted surveys on the distribution and abundance to exotic plants in three Great Lakes National Parks.
PublicationsLeicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V., 2012. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis). Weed Science Society of America , 10 p.
Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B., 2012. Encroachment of oriental bittersweet into Pitcher’s thistle habitat. Natural Areas Association , 6 p.
Buszka, Paul M.; Cohen, David A.; Lampe, David C.; Pavlovic, Noel B., 2011. Relation of hydrologic processes to groundwater and surface-water levels and flow directions in a dune-beach complex at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and Beverly Shores, Indiana. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5073, ix, 75 p. [Link]
Pavlovic, N. B.; Leicht-Young, S. A. , 2011. Are temperate mature forests buffered from invasive lianas?. ,
Pavlovic, N. B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R. , 2011. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants. ,
Grundel, R.; Jean, R. P.; Frohnapple, K. J.; Gibbs, J.; Glowacki, G. A.; Pavlovic, N. B. , 2011. A survey of bees (hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA. ,
Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K. J.; Jean, R. P.; Pavlovic, N. B. , 2011. Effectiveness of bowl trapping and netting for inventory of a bee community. ,
Pavlovic, N. B. and Ralph Grundel. 2009. Reintroduction of Wild lupine (Lupinus perennis L.) depends on variation in canopy, vegetation and litter cover. Restoration Ecology. 17: 807-817.
Leicht-Young, S., N. Pavlovic, R. Grundel, and K. Frohnapple. 2009. A comparison of seed banks across a sand dune successional gradient at Lake Michigan dunes (Indiana, USA). Plant Ecology 202:299-308.
Pavlovic, N. B., Stacey Leicht-Young, K. J. Frohnapple, and R. Grundel. 2009. Effect of removal of Hesperis matronalis (dame’s rocket) on species cover of forest understory vegetation in NW Indiana. American Midland Naturalist. 161: 165-176.
Pavlovic, N. B., S. A. Leicht-Young, D. A. Wilcox, R. Hiebert, D. Mason, and K. J. Frohnapple. 2009. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Great Lakes Inventory & Monitoring Network, Ashland, WI.. 154pp.2009
Grundel, R. and N. B. Pavlovic. 2008. Using conservation value to assess land restoration and management alternatives across a degraded oak savanna landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology. 45:315-324.
Pavlovic, N. B., Karen Quinlan, and Thomas Ford. 2008. Developing a rare and exotic plant geographic information system databases for Indiana Dunes and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshores. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GLKN/NRTR—2008/145. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Leicht-Young, S. A., N. B. Pavlovic, R. Grundel, and K Potts. 2007. Distinguishing native (Celastrus scandens L.) and invasive (C. orbiculatus Thunb.) bittersweet species using morphological characteristics. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club. 134(4): 441-450.
Grundel, R., and N. B. Pavlovic. 2007. Response of bird species densities to habitat structure and fire history along a Midwestern oak-forest gradient. Condor 109:734-749.
Grundel, R., and N. B. Pavlovic. 2007. Distinctiveness, use and value of midwestern oak savannas and woodlands as avian habitats. Auk 124:969-985.
Grundel, R. and N. B. Pavlovic. 2007. Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly. Biological Conservation. 135: 135-144.
Pavlovic, N. B., Stacey A. Leicht-Young and Krystalynn J. Frohnapple. 2007. Distinguishing American and Oriental Bittersweet Using Leaf Morphology. Report Illinois Beach State Park (IL State Parks & Nature Preserves Commission), Lyons Woods, IL (Lake County Forest Preserve District) and Warren Dunes State Park, MI (Michigan State Parks and Natural Features Inventory). Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station. 15pp.
Pavlovic, N. B., S. Leicht-Young, and K. Frohnapple. 2007. Distinguishing an alien invasive vine from the native congener: morphology, genetics, and hybridization. Report for the Center for Invasive Plant Management, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station. 83pp.
Pavlovic, N. B. and K. Frohnapple. 2007. The status of American and Oriental bittersweet at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. Report for the, National Park Service. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station. 83pp.
Pavlovic, N. B., R. Grundel, and W. Sluis. 2006. Groundlayer vegetation gradients across oak woodland canopy gaps. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club. 133(2): 225-239.
Pavlovic, N. 2004. Dune system. In: Grossman, James R., Ann Durkin Keating, and Janice L Reiff, eds. The Encyclopedia of Chicago. University of Chicago Press. P 197.
Pavlovic, N. B. and L. Forste. 2004. Report on the trends in the tree and shrub vegetation at Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Lincoln City, Indiana: development of a vegetation monitoring database. Report to National Park Service, Heartland Network and Lincoln Boyhood National Monument. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station. 42pp.
Benjamin, P. K., J. A. Stumpf, and N. B. Pavlovic. 2003. A comparison of nested quadrat and point-line intercept sampling methods for fire effects monitoring in shortgrass prairie. Pages 116-123 in S. A. Fore, editor. Proceedings of the Eighteenth North American Prairie Conference: Promoting Prairie. Truman State University Press, Kirksville, MO.
Grundel, R., N. B. Pavlovic, and C. L. Sulzman. 2000. Nectar plant selection by the Karner Blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. American Midland Naturalist. 144:1-10.
Pavlovic et al, 1998. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service , 79 p.
Grundel, R., N. B. Pavlovic, and C. L. Sulzman. 1998. The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis). Oecologia 114:243-250.
Choi, Y. D. and N. B. Pavlovic. 1998. Experimental restoration of native vegetation in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Restoration Ecology 5:118-129.
Grundel, R., N. B. Pavlovic, and C. L. Sulzman. 1998. Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover. Biological Conservation 85:47-53.
Hiebert, R., A. Gibbs, T. McLendon, N. Pavlovic, J. Randall, J. Taylor, and S. Walasewicz. 1997. Purple Loosestrife management program review; Acadia National Park, Maine: August 6-9, 1997. Edited by J. H. Connery. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NESO-RNR/NRTR/97-02. Boston, MA. 43pp.
Pavlovic, N. B. and M. L. Bowles. 1996. Rare Plant Monitoring Program at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. In: W. L. Halverson and G. E. Davis. Science and Ecosystem Management in the National Parks. University of Arizona Press. pp. 253-280.
Pavlovic, N. B., C. Sulzman, R. Grundel, and R. Whitman. 1996. Prospectus for the Michigan City Confined Disposal Facility. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. 13pp.
Choi, Y. D. and N. B. Pavlovic. 1995. Restoring native vegetation on Indiana Dunes razed residential sites. Park Science 15:18-20.
McEachern, K.; Bowles, M.; Pavlovic, N.Bowles, M.; Whelen, C., 1994. A metapopulation approach to Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) recovery in southern Lake Michigan dunes. Cambridge University Press , p. 194-218
Choi, Y. D. and N. B. Pavlovic. 1994. Comparison of fire, herbicide, and sod removal to control exotic vegetation. Steward's Circle. Natural Areas Journal 14:217-218.
Pavlovic, N. B. 1994. Disturbance-mediated persistence of rare plants: restoration implications. In: Bowles, M. L. and C. Whelan (eds.). Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 159-193.
McEachern, A. K., M. L. Bowles, and N. B. Pavlovic. 1994. Recovery planning for the threatened Great Lakes thistle Cirsium pitcheri according to a metapopulation model. In: Bowles, M. L. and C. Whelan (eds.). Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 194-218.
Pavlovic, N. B. and S. Swisher. 1994. Comprehensive Midwest list of state listed plants that are reported from savannas. Appendix B in Draft Midwest Oak Ecosystems Recovery Plan. Eds. Botts, P, A. Haney, K. Holland, S. Packard, J. Bacone, S. Eichelis, D. Faber-Langendoen, D. Ladd, G. Malanson, N. Pavlovic, and L. Stitch. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pp 89-100.
Pavlovic, N. B. and R. Grundel. 1994. Prairie Introduction at the New Haven Defense National Stockpile. Defense Logistics Agency, Defense National Stockpile Zone-Hammond. 9pp.
Bowles, M., R. Flakne, K. McEachern, and N. Pavlovic. 1993. Recovery planning and reintroduction planning for the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 13:164-176.
Whitman, R. L., D. Fagre, N. B. Pavlovic, and K. L. Cole. 1993. Applications of landscape ecology to urban park management. In: Platt, R, R. A. Rowntree, and P. C. Muick, eds. The Ecological City. University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 188-202.
Cole, K. L., K. F. Klick, and N. B. Pavlovic. 1992. Fire temperature monitoring during experimental burns at the Indiana Dunes. Natural Areas Journal 12:177-183.
Brown, J. S. and N. B. Pavlovic. 1992. Evolution in heterogeneous environments: Effects of migration on habitat specialization. Evolutionary Ecology 6:320-382.
Pavlovic, N. B., M. DeMauro, and M. L. Bowles. 1992. Perspectives on Plant Competition--Plant collection rate should be positively correlated with plant population size: Reply to the 1-in-20 rule for plant collection. Plant Society Bulletin. 38(1):8.
Bowles, M. L., M. M. DeMauro, N. Pavlovic, and R. Hiebert. 1990. Effects of anthropogenic disturbances on endangered and threatened plants at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Natural Areas Journal. 10(4):191-204.
Pavlovic, Noel B. 1990. Vegetation restoration planning at Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial. Park Science. 10(3):22-23.
McEachern, K.; Magnuson, J.; Pavlovic, N., 1989. Preliminary results of a study to monitor Cirsium pitcheri in Great Lakes National Lakeshores. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Technical Report, Porter, Indiana. ,
Pavlovic, N. B. and M. A. White. 1989. Forest restoration of Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Presettlement, existing vegetation, and restoration management recommendations. National Park Service Research/Resources Management Report MWR-15. 106pp.
Pavlovic, N. B. and M. Rodriguez. 1988. Management data manipulation program. Park Science 8:11.
Hiebert, R.D., D.A. Wilcox and N.B. Pavlovic. 1986. Vegetation patterns in and among pannes (calcareous intradunal ponds) at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. Amer. Midl. Natur. 116:276‑281
Wilcox, D.A., N.B. Pavlovic and M.L. Mueggler. 1985. Scirpus cyperinus: Selected ecological characteristics and its role as an invader of disturbed wetlands. Wetlands 5:87‑97.
Henderson, N. and N. Pavlovic. 1984. Forest resource investigation of Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Midwest Regional Office. 12pp.
My Science Topics
My USGS Science Strategy AreasUnderstanding Ecosystems & Predicting Ecosystems Change
Climate Variability & Change
Invasive plant species across landscapes
I have been studying the impact of invasive species across biological organization and scales from genes, individuals, patches, habitats, to landscapes.. Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), a highly invasvie liana from east Asia, has been the focal species. Oriental bittersweet has migrated westward form the northeast to cover the eastern half of the continental U.S. My colleagues and I have been studying this species across the lanscape at different scales to unterstand the potential threat of this species and its ecolocigal impact. We first examined the utility of morphological characters to distinguish this species from its native congener, American bitttersweet (C. scandens). Next we have developed the genetic tools to examine the potential for hybridization between the two species. This work has shown that oriental bittersweet is hybridizing American bittersweet to extinction through pollen swamping and asymmetric fertilization. Since F2 hybrids are sterile, hybrid swardms are not expected. Additional reserarch has documented that nurseries are inadvertentaly selling oriental bittersweet as American bittersweet. Papers will be forthcoming in 2013-2014 by David Zaya concerning the potential for hybridization. We have looked at the potential for invasion of oriental bittersweet in the context of wild and prescribed burning. Oriental bittersweet is known to root sucker, so we have examined how fire and cutting influences this response. We have looks at how high temperature incluence seed viability, how litter removal and burning incluences bittersweet invasion across a habitat and soil gradient, how bittersweet growth and root reserves (total nonstructural carbohydrates) respond to fire and cutting, and how fire and disurbance across the landscape influences bitttersweet distirbution and abundance. We have also examined the distribution and abundance of lianas, including oriental bittersweet from early successional forest to mature and old growth forests. From these studies we have deriveed an comprehensive perspective on the impacts and invasion of oriental bittersweet in North America. We have demonstrated that cutting of oriental bitttersweet in early July, subsequently reduces TNC by 75% from formant season leavels and provides a strategy and hope for controlling this highly invasive ecological engineer.
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