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Kelly Smalling

Research Hydrologist

Contact Info

Short Biography

I am an environmental organic chemist who has been working with the USGS since 2004.  My current research focuses on the occurrence, fate and effects of emerging contaminants including current-use pesticides in the environment.  I am the lead for the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative's Contaminants Project, the project coordinator of the "EDC effects on fish and wildlife in the Cheseapeake Bay Watershed" project through the Contaminants Biology Program, and a member of the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program's Pesticide Fate Research Team.

I received a BS in Chemistry from the University of Alabama in Huntsville in 1999 and a MSPH in Environmental Health Science from the University of South Carolina in 2003.


Reeves, R.A., Pierce, C.L., Smalling, K.L., Klaver, R.W., Vandever, M.W., Battaglin, W.A., Muths, E. 2015. Restored Agricultural Wetlands in central Iowa: Habitat Quality and Amphibian Response, Wetlands, pp1-10.

Fischer, J.M., Phillips, P.J., Reilly, T.J., Focazio, M.J., Loftin, K.A., Benzel, W.M., Jones, D.K., Smalling, K.L., Fisher, S.C., Fisher, I.J., Iwanowicz, L.R., Romanok, K.M., Jenkins, D., Bowers, L., Boehlke, A., Foreman, W.T., Deetz, A.C., Carper, L.G., Imbrigiotta, T.E., and Birdwell, J., 2015, Estuarine bed-sediment-quality data collected in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy, 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 905, 42 p., plus CD-ROM, [Link]

Smalling, K.L., Deshpande, A.D., Blazer, V.S., Galbraith, H., Dockum, B.W., Romanok, K.M., Colella, K., Deetz, A.C., Fisher, I.J., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Sharack, B., Sumner, L, Timmons, D., Trainor, J., Wieczorek, D., Samson, J., Reilly, T.J., and Focazio, M.J., 2015, Chemical and ancillary data associated with bed sediment, young of year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) tissue, and mussel (Mytilus edulis and Geukensia demissa) tissue collected after Hurricane Sandy in bays and estuaries of New Jersey and New York, 2013–14: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 956, 18 p., [Link]

Hladik, M.L., Vandever, M., Smalling, K.L., 2016, Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 542, p. 469-477. [Link]

Wilson, E.R.,Smalling, K.L., Reilly, T.J., Gray, E., Bond, L., Steele, L., Kandel, P., Chamberlin, A., Gause, J., Reynolds, N., Robertson, I., Novak, S., Feris, K., White, M.M. 2014. Assessing the Potential Effects of Fungicides on Nontarget Gut Fungi (Trichomycetes) and Their Associated Larval Black Fly Hosts. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 50(2): 420-433. [Link]

Reilly, T.J., Smalling,K.L.., Meyer, M.T., Sandstrom, M.W., Hladik, M.L., Boehlke, A.R., Fishman, N.S., Battaglin, W.A., and Kuivila, K.M., 2014, Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 811, 53 p. [Link]

Anderson, BA, Phillips, B, Hunt, J., Siegler, K, Voorhees, J, Smalling, K, Kuivila, K, Hamilton, M, Ranasinghe, Tjeerdema, R. 2014. Impacts of pesticides in a Central California Estuary. Environ Monit Assess 186: 1801-1814.

Smalling, K.L., Reeves, R., Muths, E., Vandever, M., Battaglin, W.A., Hladik, M.H., Pierce, C.L. 2015. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture. Sci Total Environ 502: 80-90. [Link]

Smalling, Kelly L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Kuivila, Kathryn M., 2013. Accumulation of pesticides in pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA. Enviromental Toxicology and Chemistry vol. 32, p. 2026-2034 [Link]

Smalling, K.L., Reilly, T.J., Sandstrom, M.W., Kuivila, K.M., 2013, Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted uses areas in the United States, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 447, p. 179-185. [Link]

Smalling, K.L, Kuivila, K.M, Orlando, J.L., Phillips, B.M, Anderson, B.A., Siegler, K., Hunt, J.W., Hamilton, M., 2013, Environmental fate of fungicides and other current-use pesticides in a central California estuary, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.73, p. 144-153 [Link]

Alvarez, D.A., Maruya, K.A., Dodder, N.G., Frulong, E.T., Smalling, K.L., 2013, Occurrence of contaminants of emerging 1 concern along the California coast (2009-10) using passive sampling devices, Marine Pollution Bulletin, in press [Link]

Brander, SM, Connon, RE, He, G, Hobbs, JA, Smalling, KL, Teh, SJ, White, JW, Werner, I, Denison, MS, Cherr, GN. From 'Omics to otoliths: Responses of an estuarine fish to endocrine disrupting compounds across biological scales. PLoS ONE 8(9): e74251. [Link]

Reilly, T.J., Smalling, K.L., Wilson, E.R., and Battaglin, W.A., 2012. Dissolved pesticides, dissolved organic carbon, and water-quality characteristics in selected Idaho streams, April-December 2010. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 667. [Link]

Reilly, TJ, Smalling, KL, Orlando, JL and Kuivila, KM. Occurrence of boscalid and other selected fungicides in surface water and groundwater in three targeted use areas in the United States. Chemosphere 2012; 89: 228-234.

Smalling, K.L., Orlando, J.L., Calhoun, Daniel, Battaglin, W.A., and Kuivila, K.M., 2012, Occurrence of pesticides in water and sediment collected from amphibian habitats located throughout the United States, 2009–10: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 707, 36 p. [Link]

Brander, S.M., He, G., Smalling, K.L., Denison, M.S., Cherr, G.S., 2012, The in vivo estrogenic and in vitro anti-estrogenic activity of permethrin and bifenthrin, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol 21, no. 12, p. 2848-2855.

Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L., 2011. Occurrence of pesticides in surface water and sediments from three central California coastal watersheds, 20082009. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 600, x, 70 p. [Link]

Smalling, K.L., Morgan, S and Kuivila, K.M. 2010. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Vol 29, p. 2593-

Hladik, Michelle L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M., 2009. Methods of Analysis - Determination of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Water and Sediment Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 5-C2, viii, 19 p. [Link]

Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M., 2008. Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006-2007. Geological Survey (U.S.) Data Series 365, vi, 33 p. [Link]

Smalling, K.L. and Kuivila K.M., 2008, Multi-residue method for the analysis of 85 current-use and legacy pesticides in bed and suspended sediments, Journal of Chromatography A. vol. 1210, p. 8-18

Smalling, K.L., Orlando, J.L. and Kuivila, K.M., 2007, Occurrence of pesticides in water, sediment and soil from the Yolo Bypass, California. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, vol 5, Issue 1, Article 2 (online) [Link]

Smalling, K.L and Aelion, C.M., 2006, Reply to Comments on “Biological and Chemical Transformation of Atrazine in Coastal Aquatic Sediments” by C. Marjorie Aelion and Kelly Smalling, Chemosphere, vol. 65, p. 1442-1443.

Smalling, K.L and Aelion, C.M., 2006, Biological and chemical transformation of atrazine in coastal aquatic sediments, Chemosphere, vol. 62, p.188-196.

Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M., 2005. Analysis of pesticides in surface water and sediment from Yolo Bypass, California, 2004-2005. Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5220, 20 p. [Link]

Pulster E.L., Smalling K.L. and Maruya KA., 2005, PCBs and toxaphene in preferred prey fish of coastal southeastern U.S. bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.24, p.3128-3136.


My Science Topics

Science Topic
Environmental Issuescontamination and pollution
Environmental Issuesground-water quality
Environmental Issueshealth and disease
Environmental Issuesland use
Environmental Issuesnonpoint-source pollution
Environmental Issueswater quality
Ecology and Environmentaquatic ecosystems
Plants and Animalswildlife

My USGS Science Strategy Areas

Understanding Ecosystems & Predicting Ecosystems Change

The Role of Environment and Wildlife in Human Health

Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

Image of Current Focus for Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

I am interested in the fate and effects of contaminants including current-use pesticides and other endocrine active compounds on fish and wildlife with a focus on amphibian populations.  My key research interest include:

Understanding the potential link between contaminants, other stressors (disease) and amphibian declines

Assessing the effectiveness of constructed wetlands as viable amphibian habitats

Understanding the occurrence, fate and effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on fish and wildlife in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

Contact Information

Kelly Smalling
3450 Princeton Pike
Lawrenceville, NJ 08648
609-771-3915 - Fax
609-331-4850 - Mobile
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