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Kimberly Wickland

Research Ecologist

Contact Info

Short Biography

I lead field and laboratory studies of biogeochemical cycling of carbon and greenhouse gas exchange in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and terrestrial-aquatic carbon linkages. My degrees are in Zoology, with an emphasis on limnology (Miami University, Ohio), and Biology and Geological Sciences, with an emphasis on biogeochemical cycles (MA, PhD - Univ. Colorado-Boulder). I study carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production, uptake, and emissions from terrestrial and aquatic systems, and the generation and fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). My research covers a large range of ecosystems, including wetlands, forest soils, tundra, lakes, streams, and rivers in temperate and northern high latitude regions. Many of my studies focus on the effects of climate change and land use on ecosystem carbon cycling.

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Eckley, C.S., M.T. Tate, C.-J. Lin, M. Gustin, S. Dent, C. Eagles-Smith, M.A. Lutz, K.P. Wickland, B. Wang, J.E. Gray, G.C. Edwards, D.P. Krabbenhoft, and D.B. Smith, 2016, Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: a synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables, Sci Total Environ., [Link]

Abbott, B.W., J.B. Jones, E.A.G. Schuur, F.S. Chapin III, W.B.Bowden, M.S. Bret-Harte, H.E. Epstein, M.D. Flannigan, T.K. Harms, T.N. Hollingsworth, M.C. Mack, A.D. McGuire, S.M. Natali, A.V. Rocha, S.E. Tank, M.R. Turetsky, J.E. Vonk, K.P. Wickland, and others, 2016, Biomass offsets little or non of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment, Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034014. [Link]

Vonk, J.E., Tank, S.E., Bowden, W.B., Laurion, I., Vincent, W.F., Alekseychik, P., Amyot, M., Billet, M.F., Canario, J., Cory, R.M., Deshpande, B.N., Helbig, M., Jammet, M., Karlsson, J., Larouche, J., MacMillan, G., Rautio, M., Walter Anthony, K.M., and Wickland, K.P., 2015, Review and Syntheses: Effects of permafrost thaw on arctic aquatic ecosystems, Biogeosciences, 12, 7129-7167, doi:10.5194/bg-12-7129-2015. [Link]

Vonk, J.E., Tank, S.E., Mann, P.J., Spencer, R.G.M., Treat, C.C., Striegl, R.G., Abbott, B.W., and Wickland, K.P., 2015, Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in permafrost soils and waterways: a meta-analysis, Biogeosciences, 12, 6915-6930, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6915-2015. [Link]

Drake, T.W., Wickland, K.P., Spencer, R.G.M., McKnight, D.M., and Striegl, R.G., 2015, Ancient low-molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.1511705112. [Link]

Jorgenson, M.T., Kanevskiy, M., Shur, Y., Moskalenko, N., Brown, D.N.R., Wickland, K., Striegl, R., and Koch, J., 2015, Role of ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks in recent ice wedge degradation and stabilization, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JF003602. [Link]

Wickland, K.P., A.V. Krusche, R.K. Kolka, A.W. Kishimoto-Mo, R.A. Chimner, Y. Serengil, S. Ogle, N. Srivastava, 2014, Chapter 5: Inland Wetland Mineral Soils, In: IPCC 2014, 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands, Hiraishi, T., Krug, T., Tanabe, K., Srivastava, N., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M. and Troxler, T.G. (eds). Published: IPCC, Switzerland. [Link]

Turetsky, M.R., Kotowska, A., Bubier, J., Dise, N.B., Crill, P., Hornibrook, E.R.C., Minkkinen, K., Moore, T.R., Myers-Smith, I.H., Nykanen, H., Olefeldt, D., Rinne, J., Saarnio, S., Shurpali, N., Tuittila, E.-S., Waddington, J.M., White, J.R., Wickland, K.P., and Wilmking, M., 2014, A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical wetlands, Global Change Biology, doi:10.1111/gcb.12580. [Link]

Tas, N., Prestat, E., McFarland, J.W., Wickland, K.P., Knight, R., Berhe, A.A., Jorgenson, T., Waldrop, M.P., and Jansson, J.K., 2014, Impact of fire on active layer and permafrost microbial communities and metagenomes in an upland Alaskan boreal forest, The ISME Journal, 8: 1904-1919, doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.36. [Link]

Mu, C., Zhang, T., Schuster, P.F., Schaefer, K., Wickland, K.P., Repert, D.A., Liu, L., Schaefer, T., Cheng, G., 2014, Carbon and geochemical properties of cryosols on the North Slope of Alaska, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 100: 59-67. [Link]

Johnston, C.E., Ewing, S.A., Harden, J.W., Varner, R.K., Wickland, K.P., Koch, J.C., Fuller, C.C., Manies, K., and Jorgenson, M.T., 2014, Effect of permafrost thaw on CO2 and CH4 exchange in a western Alaska peatland chronosequence, Environ, Res. Lett. 9 (2014) 085004. [Link]

He, Y., Zhuang, Q., Harden, J.W., McGuire, A.D., Fan, Z., Liu, Y., and Wickland, K.P., 2014, The implications of microbial and substrate limitation for the fates of carbon in different organic soil horizon types of boreal forest ecosystems: a mechanistically based model analysis, Biogeosciences, 11, 4477-4491, doi:10.5194/bg-11-4477-2014. [Link]

Koch, J.C., Kikuchi, C.P., Wickland, K.P., and Shcuster, P., 2014, Runoff sources and flow paths in a partially burned, upland boreal catchment underlain by permafrost, Water Res. Research, doi:10.1002/2014WR015586. [Link]

Crawford, J.T., R.G. Striegl, K.P. Wickland, M.M. Dornblaser, and E.H. Stanley, 2013, Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from a headwater stream network of interior Alaska, J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrg.20034. [Link]

E. A. G. Schuur, B. W. Abbott, W. B. Bowden, V. Brovkin, P. Camill, J. G. Canadell, J. P. Chanton, F. S. Chapin III, T. R. Christensen, P. Ciais, B. T. Crosby, C. I. Czimczik, G. Grosse,J. Harden, D. J. Hayes, G. Hugelius, J. D. Jastrow, J. B. Jones, T. Kleinen, C. D. Koven, G. Krinner, P. Kuhry, D. M. Lawrence, A. D. McGuire, S. M. Natali, J. A. O’Donnell, C. L. Ping,W. J. Riley, A. Rinke, V. E. Romanovsky, A. B. K. Sannel, C. Schädel, K. Schaefer, J. Sky, Z. M. Subin, C. Tarnocai, M. R. Turetsky, M. P. Waldrop, K. M. Walter Anthony, K. P. Wickland,C. J. Wilson and S. A. Zimov, 2013, Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change, Climatic Change, 10.1007/s10584-013-0730-7. [Link]

Jorgenson, M.T., J. Harden, M. Kanevskiy, J. O’Donnell, K. Wickland, S. Ewing, K. Manies, Q. Zhuan, Y. Shur, R. Striegl, J. Koch, 2013, Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/035017, 13p. [Link]

Wickland, K.P., G.R. Aiken, K. Butler, M.M. Dornblaser, R.G.M. Spencer, and R.G. Striegl, 2012, Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in the Yukon River and its tributaries: seasonality and importance of inorganic nitrogen, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 26, GB0E03, doi:10.1029/2012GB0004342. [Link]

Kelsey, K.C., Wickland, K.P., Neff, J.C., and Striegl, R.G, 2012, Variation in soil carbon dioxide at two spatial scales in a topographically complex boreal forest, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 44(4): 457-468, doi: [Link]

Grosse, G., Harden, J., Turetsky, M., McGuire, A.D., Camill, P., Tarnocai, C., Frolking, S., Schuur, E.A.G. Jorgenson, T., Marchenko, S., Romanovsky, V., Wickland, K.P., N. French, N., Waldrop, M., Bourgeau-Chavez, L., and Striegl, R.G., 2011, Vulnerability of high-latitude soil organic carbon in North America to disturbance, Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, G00K06, doi:10.1029/2010JG001507. [Link]

O’Donnell, J.A., Jorgenson, M.T., Harden, J.W., McGuire, A.D., Kanevskiy, M.Z., and Wickland, K.P., 2011, The effects of permafrost thaw on soil hydrologic, thermal, and carbon dynamics in an Alaskan peatland, Ecosystems, doi:10.1007/s10021-011-9504-0, published online by journal Nov. 17, 2011, 17pp. [Link]

Wickland, K.P., Neff, J.C., and Harden, J.W., 2010, The role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide exchange and decomposition in boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forest stands, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40 (11): 2123-2134. [Link]

Waldrop, M.P., Wickland, K.P., White, R., Berhe, A.A., Harden, J.W., and Romanovsky, V.E., 2010, Molecular investigations into a globally important carbon pool: Permafrost-protected carbon in Alaskan soils, Global Change Biology, 16 (9): 2543-2554. [Link]

Fan, Z., Neff, J.C., and Wickland, K.P., 2010, Modeling the production, decomposition, and transport of dissolved organic carbon in boreal soils, Soil Science, v. 175, no. 5, p. 223-232.

Wickland, K.P., and Neff, J.C., 2008, Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls, Biogeochemistry, 87:29-47, doi:10.1007/s10533-007-9166-3. [Link]

Spencer, R.G., Aiken, G.R., Wickland, K.P., Striegl, R.G., and Hernes, P.J., 2008, Seasonal and spatial variability in dissolved organic matter quantity and composition from the Yukon River basin, Alaska, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, v. 22, GB4002, doi:10.1029/2008GB003231. [Link]

Fan, Z., Neff, J.C., Harden, J.W., and Wickland, K.P., 2008, Boreal soil carbon dynamics under a changing climate -A model inversion approach, Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 113, G04016, doi:10.1029/2008JG000723. [Link]

Striegl, R.G., Dornblaser, M.M., Aiken, G.R., Wickland, K.P., and Raymond, P.A., 2007, Carbon export and cycling by the Yukon, Tanana, and Porcupine Rivers, Alaska, 2001-200, Water Resources Research, 43, W02411, doi:10.1029/2006WR005201. [Link]

Wickland, K.P., Neff, J.C., and Aiken, G.R., 2007, Dissolved organic carbon in Alaskan boreal forest: Sources, chemical characteristics, and biodegradability, Ecosystems, 10(8):1323-1340, doi:10.1007/s10021-007-9104-4. [Link]

Wickland, K.P., Striegl, R.G., Neff, J.C., and Sachs, T., 2006, Effects of permafrost melting on CO2 and CH4 exchange of a poorly-drained black spruce lowland, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 111, G02011, doi:10.1029/2005JG000099. [Link]

Striegl, R.G., Aiken, G.R., Dornblaser, M.M., Raymond, P.A., and Wickland, K.P., 2005, A decrease in discharge-normalized DOC export by the Yukon River during summer through autumn, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L21413, doi:10.1029/2005GL024413. [Link]

Wickland, K.P., Striegl, R.G., Mast, M.A., and Clow, D.W., 2001, Carbon gas exchange at a southern Rocky Mountain wetland, 1996-1998, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(2): 321-335. [Link]

Striegl, R.G., and K.P. Wickland, 2001, Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest, Can. J. For. Res., 31(9): 1540-1550, doi:10.1139/x01-092 [Link]

Striegl, R.G., Schindler, J.E., Wickland, K.P., Hudson, D.C., and Knight, G., 2000, Patterns of carbon dioxide and methane saturation in 34 Minnesota and Wisconsin Lakes, Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 27: 1424-1427.

Wickland, K.P., Striegl, R.G., Schmidt, S.K., and Mast, M.A., 1999, Methane fluxes in subalpine wetland and unsaturated soils in the southern Rocky Mountains, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13(1): 101-113. [Link]

Mast, M.A., Wickland, K.P., Striegl, R.G., and Clow, D.W., 1998, Winter fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from subalpine soils in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12(4): 607-620. [Link]

Striegl, R.G., and Wickland, K.P., 1998, Effects of a clear-cut harvest on soil respiration on a jack pine-lichen woodland,Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28: 534-539.

Wickland, K.P., and Striegl, R.G., 1997, Measurements of soil carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and fluxes, and soil properties at four ages of jack pine forest in the Southern Study Area of the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1993-95: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-49, 73 pp.


My Science Topics

Science Topic
Ecology and Environmentaquatic ecosystems
Ecology and Environmentecological processes
Ecology and Environmentecosystem functions
Ecology and Environmentecosystems
Ecology and Environmentforests
Ecology and Environmentfreshwater ecosystems
Ecology and Environmenttundras
Ecology and Environmentwetlands
Environmental Issuesland use change
Environmental Issuessurface water quality
Water Resourcessurface water
Water Resourceswater quality

My USGS Science Strategy Areas

Climate Variability & Change

Understanding Ecosystems & Predicting Ecosystems Change

Terrestrial-Aquatic-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon

Image of Current Focus for Terrestrial-Aquatic-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon

The broad objective of my research is to determine rates and controls of organic carbon metabolism, and the subsequent generation and emissions of CO2 and CH4 as components of the terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric exchange of carbon. I quantify the relative importance of intrinsic substrate properties and environmental variables for carbon metabolism, and the impacts of climate change and other disturbances. My specific research objectives include: 1) quantifying the release of CO2, CH4, and DOC from landscapes experiencing permafrost thaw; 2) quantifying rates and controls of the metabolism of terrestrially-derived DOC in freshwater systems of boreal, arctic, and temperate regions, and the dependence on source and chemical character, and 3) quantifying terrestrial-aquatic-atmosphere C exchange in temperate watersheds. Much of my research focuses on boreal and arctic systems, where nearly ˝ of the global soil organic pool resides and is vulnerable to climate change. These studies are part of the USGS Yukon River Basin Project (2001-2013) and the NASA Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE; beginning 2016). My studies of terrestrial-aquatic carbon cycling in temperate regions are part of the USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Program, with a primary focus on sites in northern Wisconsin and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and part of the USGS LandCarbon Program with a current focus on the Upper Mississippi River (Wisconsin, Minnesota).

Image of


Generation and Delivery of Carbon from Soils to Surface Waters (Alaska; Wisconsin)

Dissolved Organic Carbon Quality, Transport, and Turnover Across Scales and Land Use (Upper Mississippi River Basin, Wisconsin & Minnesota)

Permafrost Thaw and Mercury Dynamics: Impacts on Atmospheric Emissions and Water Quality, and Links to Carbon Cycling (Denali National Park, Alaska)

Release and Fate of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen from Thawing Permafrost Soils (Interior Alaska)

 *USGS Press Release for publication on CO2 from ancient permafrost

Effects of Ice Wedge Degradation and Recovery on Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes (Prudhoe Bay, Alaska)


                     My Google Scholar Profile

Contact Information

Kimberly Wickland
3215 Marine St, Bldg 6
Boulder, CO 80309
303-541-3084 - Fax
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