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Kenneth Hudnut

Research Geophysicist

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Short Biography

Ken Hudnut is the Science Advisor for Risk Reduction for the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Mission Area. He tries to understand and explain natural hazards in order to help people, that is, he is responsible for ensuring USGS hazards science is being applied to help solve societally relevant problems. He has applied new technologies such as GPS and lidar to earthquake research as a geophysicist for the USGS office in Pasadena, California since 1992. To help understand the San Andreas fault system and earthquake source physics, he has studied earthquakes worldwide using satellite & airborne imagery analysis along with field work to provide ground truth. He led the earthquake source design for the ShakeOut scenario, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas fault enacted by over 5.5 million people in Nov. 2008 and more people annually since then. As project manager for the GPS L1C signal design since 2003 and GPS SLR team member, his contributions to GPS modernization received recognition from NASA, GPS World, and Institute of Navigation. Before joining USGS, he was a post-doctoral fellow at the California Institute of Technology Seismological Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia in 1989, and his A.B. (high honors) from Dartmouth in 1983. He is a Visiting Associate in Geophysics on the faculty of the California Institute of Technology.

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1.     Hudnut, K. and J. Taber, Transition from double to single Wadati-Benioff zone in the Shumagin Islands, Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 14, p. 143-146, 1987.

2.     Hudnut, K., L. Seeber, J. Pacheco, J. Armbruster, L. Sykes, G. Bond, and M. Kominz, Cross-faults and block rotation in southern California:  earthquake triggering and strain distribution, Lamont-Doherty yearbook, p. 44-49, 1988.

3.     Beavan, J., R. Bilham, K. Hudnut, K. Hurst, Techniques and results of crustal deformation measurement using sea-level gauges. leveling, and extensometers, in Crustal Deformation and Earthquakes, ed. Wu Bing, Seismological Press, 302-319, 1988.

4.     Hudnut, K.W., L. Seeber, and J. Pacheco, Cross-fault triggering in the November 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence, southern California,  Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 16 #2, p. 199-202, 1989.

5.     Hudnut, K., L. Seeber, T. Rockwell, J. Goodmacher, R. Klinger, S. Lindvall, and R. McElwain, Surface ruptures on cross-faults in the 24 November 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence, California, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 79 #2, p. 282-296, 1989.

6.     Hudnut, K. and K. Sieh, Behavior of the Superstition Hills fault during the past 330 years, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 79 #2, p. 304-329, 1989.

7.     Hudnut, K., L. Seeber, and T. Rockwell, Slip on the Elmore Ranch fault during the past 330 years and its relation to slip on the Superstition Hills fault, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer.  v. 79 #2, p. 330-341, 1989.

8.     Lindvall, S., T. Rockwell, and K. Hudnut, Evidence for prehistoric earthquakes on the Superstition Hills fault from offset geomorphic features, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 79 #2, p. 342-361, 1989.

9.     McGill, S., C. Allen, K. Hudnut, D. Johnson, W. Miller, and K. Sieh, Slip on the Superstition Hills fault and on nearby faults associated with the 24 November 1987 Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills earthquakes, southern California, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 79 #2, p. 362-375, 1989.

10.  Hudnut, K. and M. Clark, New slip along parts of the 1968 Coyote Creek fault rupture, California, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 79 #2, p. 451-465, 1989.

11.  Hudnut, K. and J. Beavan, Vertical deformation (1952-1987) in the Salton Trough, California, from water level recordings, J. Geophys. Res., v. 94, p. 9463-9476, 1989.

12.  Hudnut, K. W., Seismology:  Recent Advances in the Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes, in The 1991 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, p. 377-379, 1990.

13.  Jones, L., K. Sieh, D. Agnew, C. Allen, R. Bilham, M. Ghilarducci, B. Hager, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Jackson, and A. Sylvester, Short-term Earthquake Hazard Assessment for the Southern San Andreas Fault, Southern California, U.S.G.S. Open-File Report #91-32, 1991.

14.  Petersen, M.D., L. Seeber, L. Sykes, J. Nabelek, J. Armbruster, J. Pacheco, and K. Hudnut, Seismicity and fault interaction, southern San Jacinto fault zone and adjacent faults, southern California:  Implications for seismic hazard, Tectonics, v. 10, No. 6, pp. 1187-1203, 1991.

15.  Hudnut, K.W., "Faults", in Encyclopedia of Earth System Science, Volume 2, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, p. 219-225, 1992.

16.  Hudnut, K.W., Geodesy tracks plate motion (editorial), Nature, v. 355, No. 6362 (20 February), 1992.

17.  Mori, J., K. Hudnut, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, and K. Hutton ('compilers'), Rapid scientific response to the Landers quake, EOS, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, v. 73, No. 39 (29 September), pp. 417-418, 1992.

18.  Lindvall, S.C. and K.W. Hudnut, Field guide to the area of maximum displacements along the 1992 Landers earthquake rupture, in Landers Earthquake of June 28, 1992 - San Bernardino County, California, Assoc. Engin. Geol. (So. Calif. Sect.), pp. 33-38, Oct. 10, 1992.

19.  Bock, Y., D. Agnew, P. Fang, J. Genrich, B. Hager, T. Herring, K. Hudnut, R. King, S. Larsen, J.-B. Minster, K. Stark, S. Wdowinski, and F. Wyatt, Detection of crustal deformation related to the Landers earthquake sequence using continuous geodetic measurements, Nature, v. 361, No. 6410 (28 January), pp. 337-340, 1993.

20.  Sieh, K., L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H.K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, and J. Zachariasen, Near-field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July, 1992, Science, v. 260 (April 9), pp. 171-176, 1993.

21.  Hudnut, K. W., Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King,  J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z-K. Shen, J. Svarc and J. Zhang, Coseismic Displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake Sequence, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., 84(3), 625-645, 1994.

22.  Johnson, H. O., D. C. Agnew, and K. Hudnut, Extremal bounds on earthquake moment from geodetic data:  application to the Landers earthquake, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., 84(3), 660-667, 1994.

23.  Bodin, P., R. Bilham, J. Behr, J. Gomberg, and K. Hudnut, Slip triggered on southern California faults by the Landers earthquake sequence, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., 84(3), 806-816, 1994.

24.  Hudnut, K. W., The Inter-County Surveys.  25 pgs.  4/15/93.  (Report to surveying community in So. Calif. on results of the 1991 & 1992 Inter-County GPS surveys).

25.  Hudnut, K. W., Inter-County 1993 Survey Progress Report.  6 pgs.  11/11/93.  (Report to surveying community in So. Calif. on results of the 1993 Inter-County GPS survey).

26.  Bennett, R., R. Reilinger, W. Rodi, Y. Li, K. Hudnut, Coseismic fault slip associated with the 1992 Mw 6.1 Joshua Tree, California earthquake:  Implications for the Joshua Tree - Landers earthquake sequence, J. Geophys. Res., v. 100, No. 4, pp. 6443-6461, 1995.

27.  USGS and SCEC Scientists (Jones, L. et al., including K. Hudnut), The magnitude 6.7 Northridge, Calif. earth­quake of 17 January 1994, Science, 266 (Oct. 21 issue), 389-397, 1994.

28.  Peltzer, G., K. W. Hudnut, K. L. Feigl, Analysis of coseismic surface displacement gradients using radar interferometry:  New insights into the Landers earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., v. 99, #11, pp. 21871-21981, 1994.

29.  Hudnut, K. W., Earthquake geodesy and hazard monitoring, Reviews of Geophysics (Supplement), U. S. National Report to IUGG, 1991-1994, pp. 249-255, 1995.

30.  Hudnut, K. W., Z. Shen, M. Murray, S. McClusky, R. King, T. Herring, B. Hager, Y. Feng, P. Fang, A. Donnellan, and Y. Bock, Coseismic displacements of the 1994 Northridge, Calif., earthquake, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer. (Special Issue), v. 86, No. 1, Part B, pp. S19-S36, 1996.

31.  Wald, D. J., T. H. Heaton, and K. W. Hudnut, The slip history of the 1994 Northridge, Calif., earthquake determined from strong-motion, teleseismic, GPS and leveling data, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer. (Special Issue), v. 86, No. 1, Part B, pp. S49-S70, 1996.

32.  Murray, M.H. and K. W. Hudnut, Measuring regional ground deformation with the Global Positioning System, Earthquakes and Volcanoes (Special Issue), v. 25, Number 2, pp. 62-74, 1994.

33.  Hudnut, K. W., J. Mori, W. Prescott and P. Stauffer, Southern Californians cope with earthquakes, U. S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet #225-95, 2 pp., 1995.

34.  DeMets, C. I. Carmichael, T. Melbourne, O. Sanchez, J. Stock, G. Suarez and K. Hudnut, Anticipating the successor to Mexico’s largest historical earthquake, EOS, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, v. 76, No. 42 (17 October), pp. 417 & 424, 1995.

35.  Bayarsayhan, Ch., A. Bayasgalan, B. Enhtuvshin, K. W. Hudnut, R. A. Kurushin, P. Molnar, and M. Olziybat, The 1957 Gobi-Altay, Mongolia earthquake as a prototype for southern California’s most devastating earthquake, Geology, v. 24, No. 7, pp. 579-582, 1996.

36.  Hudnut, K. W., Near real-time monitoring of Pacoima Dam, Los Angeles, California, 1 pp., Science Snapshots, UNAVCO (Boulder, Colorado), 1996.

37.  Peltzer, G., P. Rosen, F. Rogez, K. Hudnut, Postseismic rebound in fault step-overs caused by pore fluid flow, Science, v. 273 (Aug. 30), pp. 1202-1204, 1996.

38.  Hodgkinson, K.M., R. S. Stein, K. Hudnut, J. Satalich and J. Richards, Damage and restoration of geodetic infrastructure caused by the 1994 Northridge, Calif., earthquake, U. S. Geological Survey Open-File report #96-517, 70 pp., 1996.

39.  Melbourne, T., I. Carmichael, C. DeMets, K. Hudnut, O. Sanchez, J. Stock, G. Suarez, and F. Webb, The geodetic signature of the M8.0 October 9, 1995 Jalisco subduction earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett.. v. 24, No. 6, pp. 715-718, 1997.

40.  Kurushin, R. A., A. Bayasgalan, M. Olziybat, B. Enhtuvshin, P. Molnar, Ch. Bayarsayhan, K. Hudnut, J. Lin, The surface rupture of the 1957 Gobi-Altay, Mongolia, earthquake, Geological Society of America, Special Paper 320, 160 pp. and 2 maps, 1997.

41.  Bock, Y. et al. (incl. K. Hudnut), Southern California permanent GPS geodetic array: continuous measurements of regional crustal deformation between the 1992 Landers and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., v. 102, B8, pp. 18013-18033, 1997.

42.  Stein, R. S., K. W. Hudnut, J. Satalich, K. M. Hodgkinson, Monitoring damage to bridges and highways with GPS: insights from the 1994 Northridge earthquake, in Proceedings of the National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways [Sacramento, CA; July 8-11, 1997], pp. 347-360, 1997.

43.  Shen, Zheng-kang, Dong, Danan, Herring, Thomas, Hudnut, Kenneth, Jackson, David, King, Robert, McClusky, Simon, Sung, Li-yu, Crustal deformation measured in Southern California, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 78 (43), p. 477, 482, 1997. (chaired SCEC working group that produced the data product highlighted in this article)

44.  Savage, J.C., J.L. Svarc, W.H. Prescott, and K.W. Hudnut, Deformation following the 1994 Northridge earthquake (M=6.7), southern California, Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 25, No. 14, pp. 2725-, 1998.

45.  Hudnut, K. W. and J. A. Behr, Continuous GPS monitoring of structural deformation at Pacoima Dam, California, Seismol. Res. Lett., Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 299-308, 1998.

46.  That Dam Deformation, GPS World Showcase (Applications Contest entry, submitted by K. Hudnut and J. Behr), Vol. 9, No. 8, pg. 46, August 1998.

47.  Galloway, D.L., K.W. Hudnut, S.E. Ingebritsen, S.P. Phillips, G. Peltzer, F. Rogez, and P. Rosen, Detection of aquifer system compaction and land subsidence using interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Antelope Valley, Mojave Desert, California Water Resour. Res., Vol. 34 , No. 10 , p. 2573-2586, 1998.

48.  Wald, D. J., K. W. Hudnut, and T. H. Heaton, Estimation of uniformly spaced, near-source, broadband ground motions for the 1994 Northridge earthquake from forward and inverse modeling, Proceedings of the NEHRP conference & workshop on research on the Northridge earthquake of Jan. 17, 1994, California Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREe), Volume II, Earth Sciences, pp. 429-436, 1998.

49.  Bock, Y., M. Van Domselaar, S. Williams, P. Fang, K. Hudnut, Southern Calif. PGGA: continuous measurements of crustal deformation in the LA Basin between the 1992 Landers and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, Proceedings of the NEHRP conference & workshop on research on the Northridge earthquake of Jan. 17, 1994, California Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREe), Volume II, Earth Sciences, pp. 207-215, 1998.

50.  Behr, J. A., K. Hudnut, and N. King, Monitoring structural deformation at Pacoima Dam, California, using continuous GPS, Proceedings of the 11th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation [ION GPS-98; Nashville, TN], pp. 59-68, 1998.

51.   Peltzer, G., P. Rosen, F. Rogez, and K. Hudnut, Post-seismic deformation along the Landers 1992 earthquake surface rupture, J. Geophys. Res., v. 103, No. B12, pp. 30,131-30,145, 1998.

52.   Molnar, P., Kurushin, A. Bayasgalan and K. W. Hudnut, The surface rupture of the 1957 Gobi-Altay, Mongolia, earthquake, [this is publication #42, translated in its entirety into Russian, also including a transcription of the original 1957 field notes], published by the Russian Academy of Sciences, 147 pp. and 1 map, 1998.

53.   Celebi, M., W. Prescott, R. Stein, K. Hudnut, J. Behr, and S. Wilson, GPS monitoring of dynamic behavior of long-period structures, Earthquake Spectra, v. 15, No. 1, pp. 55-66, 1999.

54.  Deng, J., K. Hudnut, M. Gurnis and E. Hauksson, Stress loading from viscous flow in the lower crust and triggering of aftershocks following the 1994 Northridge, Calif., earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 26 (1), pp. 3209-3212, 1999.

55.  Hudnut, K. W., Y. Bock, J. E. Galetzka, F. H. Webb, and W. H. Young, The Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Seismotectonics at the Subduction Zone, Y. Fujinawa (ed.), NIED, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 175-196, 1999.

56.  Scientists from the USGS, SCEC, and CDMG (incl. K. Hudnut), A preliminary report on the 10/16/99 M7.1 Hector Mine, Calif., earthquake, Seis. Res. Lett., v. 71, No. 1, pp. 11-23, 2000.

57.  Hudnut, K. W., Y. Bock, J. E. Galetzka, F. H. Webb, and W. H. Young, The Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), Proceedings -  10th FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DES GÉOMÈTRES (FIG) International Symposium on Crustal Deformation Measurement, pp. 129-148, March 19-22, 2001.

58.  Hudnut, K. and N. King, SCIGN – New Southern California GPS Network Advances the Study of Earthquakes, USGS Fact Sheet #069-01; U. S. Government Printing Office #2001-J-684-957, 2001.

59.  Bawden, G., W., W. Thatcher, R. S. Stein, K. Hudnut, and G. Peltzer, Groundwater pumping masks tectonic deformation near Los Angeles, Calif., Nature, v. 412, 23 August, pp. 812-815, 2001.

60.  Hudnut, K. W., Decimeter-order spatial resolution: imaging and swath mapping systems for tectonic, volcanic, geodetic and paleoseismic research, in Proceedings of EarthScope ‘Making and Breaking a Continent’ workshop; Snowbird, Utah, pp. 230-235, 2001.

61.  Hudnut, K. W., N. E. King, J. E. Galetzka, K. F. Stark, J. A. Behr, A. Aspiotes, S. van Wyk, R. Moffitt, S. Dockter, and F. Wyatt, Continuous GPS observations of postseismic deformation following the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake (Mw7.1), Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., v. 92, No. 4, pp. 1403-1422, 2002.

62.  Hudnut, K. W., A. Borsa, C. Glennie, and J.-B. Minster, High-resolution topography along surface rupture of the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake (Mw7.1) from airborne laser swath mapping, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., v. 92, No. 4, 1570-1576, 2002.

63.  Hudnut, K. W., G. J. Anderson, A. Aspiotes, N. E. King, R. Moffitt, K. F. Stark, GPS fault slip sensors, 2002 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Symposium on Confronting Urban Earthquakes & Seismic Early Warning, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 93-96, 2002.

64.  Celebi, M., W. Prescott, R. Stein, K. Hudnut, J. Behr, and S. Wilson, GPS monitoring of structures: recent advances, Early Warning Systems for Natural Disaster Reduction, Chapter 7.5 in J. Zschau & A. Kuppers (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, ISBN 3-540-67962-6, pp. 709-714, 2003.

65.  Anderson, G., B. Aagaard, and K. Hudnut, Fault interactions and large complex earthquakes in the Los Angeles area, Science, vol. 302 (12 December), pp. 1946-1949, 2003.

66.  Hudnut, K. W. and B. Titus, GPS L1 Civil Signal Modernization (L1C), Interagency GPS Executive Board, Report on Stewardship Project #204, 30 July 2004, 444 pp.

67.  Hardebeck, J., J. Boatwright, D. Dreger, R. Goel, V. Graizer, K. Hudnut, C. Ji, L. Jones, J. Langbein, J. Lin, E. Roeloffs, R. Simpson, K. Stark, R. Stein, J. Tinsley, Preliminary report on the 22 December 2003, M 6.5 San Simeon, California earthquake, Seismol. Res. Lett., v. 75, No. 2, pp. 155-172, 2004.

68.  Larson, K. M., A. R. Lowry, V. Kostoglodov, W. Hutton, O. Sanchez, K. Hudnut and G. Suarez, Crustal deformation measurements in Guerrero, Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., v. 109, B04409, doi:10.1029/2003JB002843, 2004.

69.  Ross, S. L., Boore, D. M., Fisher, M. A., Frankel, A. D., Geist, E. L., Hudnut, K. W., Kayen, R. E., Lee, H. J., Normark, W. R., and Wong, F. L., 2004, Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting coastal Ventura County, California:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1286, 20 pp. [available at], 2004.

70.  Ji, Chen, K. M. Larson, Y. Tan, K. W. Hudnut, and K. Choi, Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion and teleseismic data, Geophysical Research Letters, v. 31, L17608, doi:10.1029/2004GL020448, 2004.

71.  Sanchez, R. D. and K. W. Hudnut, GPS-aided inertial technology and navigation-based photogrammetry for aerial mapping of the San Andreas fault systemU.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1389, 12 pp., 2005.

72.  Aagaard, B. T., G. Anderson, and K. W. Hudnut, Dynamic rupture modeling of the transition from thrust to strike-slip motion in the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, Alaska, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 94, No. 6B, pp. S190-S201, 2004.

73.  Hudnut, K. W., “Future navigation needs your input,” GPS World magazine; invited ‘Position’ and ‘Global View’ contributions; November, 2005.

74.  Meltzner, A., J., K. Sieh, M. Abrams, and D. C. Agnew, K. W. Hudnut, J.-P. Avouac, D. H. Natawidjaja, Uplift and subsidence associated with the great Aceh-Andaman earthquake of 2004, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B02407, doi:10.1029/2005JB003891, 2006.

75.  Safak, E. and K. Hudnut, Real-time structural monitoring and damage detection by acceleration and GPS sensors, submitted (15 Oct. 2005) for 8th U. S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (April 2006 -, Meeting Proceedings, 10 pp., 2006.

76.  Betz, John W., C. R. Cahn, P. A. Dafesh, C. J. Hegarty, K. W. Hudnut, A. J. Jones, R. Keegan, K. Kovach, L. S. Lenahan, H. H. Ma, J. J. Rushanan, T. A. Stansell, C. C. Wang, and S. K. Yi, L1C Signal Design Options, Instit. of Navigation, National Technical Meeting Proceedings, 14 pp., 2006.

77.  Betz, John W., M. A. Blanco, C. R. Cahn, P. A. Dafesh, C. J. Hegarty, K. W. Hudnut, V. Kasemsri, R. Keegan, K. Kovach, L. S. Lenahan, H. H. Ma, J. J. Rushanan, D. Sklar, T. A. Stansell, C. C. Wang, and S. K. Yi, Description of the L1C Signal, Institute of Navigation, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Meeting Proceedings, 12 pp., 2006.

78.  Raleigh, D., M. Bevis and K. Hudnut, The B4 Project:  Scanning the Southern San Andreas and San Jacinto Fault Zones, B4 Project Summary, 3 pp., 2006.

79.  Evans, J. R., A. Cochard, V. Graizer, B. S. Huang, K. W. Hudnut, C. R. Hutt, H. Igel, W. H. K. Lee,  C. C. Liu, E. Majewski, R. Nigbor, E. Safak, W. U. Savage, U. Schreiber, R. Teisseyre, M. Trifunac, J. Wassermann, and C. F. Wu, Rotational seismology workshop of February 2006, U. S. Geol. Surv. Open File Rep., 2007-1145, 20 pp., 2007.

80.  Perry, Suzanne, Cox, Dale, Jones, Lucile, Bernknopf, Richard, Goltz, James, Hudnut, Kenneth, Mileti, Dennis, Ponti, Daniel, Porter, Keith, Reichle, Michael, Seligson, Hope, Shoaf, Kimberley, Treiman, Jerry, and Wein, Anne, 2008, The ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario; a story that southern Californians are writing: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1324 and California Geological Survey Special Report 207, 16 p. []

81.  Jones, L. M., Bernknopf, R., Cox, D., Goltz, J., Hudnut, K., Mileti, D., Perry, S., Ponti, D., Porter, K., Reichle, M., Seligson, H., Shoaf, K., Treiman, J., and Wein, A., 2008, The ShakeOut Scenario: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1150 and California Geological Survey Preliminary Report 25 []

82.  Star, L.M., J.P. Stewart, R.W. Graves and K.W. Hudnut, Validation against NGA empirical model of simulated motions for Mw 7.8 rupture of San Andreas fault, in proceedings; The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Oct. 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China.

83.  Ross, S. L., Lee, H. J., Parsons, T. E., Beyer, L. A., Boore, D. M., Conrad, J. E., Edwards, B. D., Fisher, M. A., Frankel, A. D., Geist, E. L., Hudnut, K. W., Hough, S. E., Kayen, R. E., Lorenson, T. D., Luco, N., McCrory, P.A., McGann, M. L., Nathenson, M., Nolan, M., Petersen, M. D., Ponti, D. J., Powell, C. L., Ryan, H. F., Tinsley, J. C., Wills, C. J., Wong, F. L., and, Jingping X., 2008, Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting proposed liquefied natural gas site in Santa Monica Bay, California:  U.S. Geological Survey  Open-File Report 2008-1344, 60 p.  [].

84.  From Capability to Continuity, GeoNet Panel Review; Earthquake Commission (EQC) Wellington, New Zealand, 27 pp., 2008. [report to EQC considering next 10-yrs. funding for GeoNet Project - international review by 6-member panel; available upon request]

85.  Hudnut, Kenneth W., Brad Aagaard, Robert Graves and Thomas H. Jordan (2008). Constructing the Scenario Event:  The Earthquake Source. (pp. 27-47)  in Jones, L. M., R. Bernknopf, D. Cox, J. Goltz, K. Hudnut, D. Mileti, S. Perry, D. Ponti, K. Porter, M. Reichle, H. Seligson, K. Shoaf, J. Treiman, and A. Wein, The ShakeOut Scenario, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1150 [].

86.  Alvarado, G. E., M. J. Carr, B. Turrin, C. C. Swisher, H.-U. Schmincke, K. W. Hudnut, Recent volcanic history of Irazú volcano, Costa Rica:  Alternation and mixing of two magma batches, and pervasive mixing, in Volcanic Hazards in Central AmericaGeological Society of America Special Paper #412,  pp. 259-276, doi: 10.1130/2006.2412(14), 2006.

87.  Hudnut, K. W., Geologic and Geodetic Aspects of the 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman and 2005 Nias-Simeulue Earthquakes, Earthquake Spectra, v. 22 (S3), pp. S13-S42, doi:10.1193/1.2222383, 2006.

88.  Hudnut, K. W., Earthquake and Tsunami Source, in “Summary Report on the Great Sumatra Earthquakes and Tsunamis of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005,” W. D. Iwan, editor Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Publication #2006-06, 100 pp., ISBN: 1-932884-19-X, Oakland, CA, August 2006.

89.  Betz, John W., M. A. Blanco, C. R. Cahn, P. A. Dafesh, C. J. Hegarty, K. W. Hudnut, V. Kasemsri, R. Keegan, K. Kovach, L. S. Lenahan, H. H. Ma, J. J. Rushanan, D. Sklar, T. A. Stansell, C. C. Wang, and S. K. Yi, Enhancing the Future of Civil GPS:  Overview of the L1C Signal, Inside GNSS, Spring 2007 issue, pp. 42-49, 2007.

90.  Shan, S., M. Bevis, E. Kendrick, G. L. Mader, D. Raleigh, K. Hudnut, M. Sartori, and D. Phillips, Kinematic GPS solutions for aircraft trajectories: Identifying and minimizing systematic height errors associated with atmospheric propagation delays, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L23S07, doi:10.1029/2007GL030889, 2007 [].

91.  Lynch, D. K. and K. W. Hudnut, The Wister Mud Pot Lineament: Southeastward Extension or Abandoned Strand of the San Andreas Fault? Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., Vol. 98, No. 4, pp. 1720-1729, doi: 10.1785/0120070252, 2008 [].

92.  Graves, R. W., B. T. Aagaard, K. W. Hudnut, L. M. Star, J. P. Stewart, and T. H. Jordan, Broadband simulations for Mw 7.8 southern San Andreas earthquakes: Ground motion sensitivity to rupture speed, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22302, doi:10.1029/2008GL035750, 2008 [].

93.  Liu-Zeng, J., Z. Zhang, L. Wen, P. Tapponier, J. Sun, X. Xing, G. Hu, Q. Xu, L. Zeng, L. Ding, C. Ji, K. W. Hudnut, J. van der Woerd, Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East–west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.07.017

94.  Fletcher, K. E., W. D. Sharp, K. J. Kendrick, W. M. Behr, K. W. Hudnut and T. C. Hanks, 230 Th/U dating of a late Pleistocene alluvial fan offset along the southern San Andreas fault, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.; September 2010; v. 122; no. 9-10; p. 1347-1359; doi: 10.1130/B30018.1 []

95.  Behr, W.M., Rood, D.H., Fletcher, K.E., Guzman, N., Finkel, R., Hanks, T.C., Hudnut, K.W., Kendrick, K.J., Platt, J.P., Sharp, W.D., Weldon, R.J., Yule, J.D., Uncertainties in slip rate estimates for the Mission Creek strand of the southern San Andreas fault at Biskra Palms Oasis, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.; September 2010; v. 122; no. 9-10; p. 1360-1377; doi: 10.1130/B30020.1 []

96.  Hudnut, Kenneth W., ShakeOut, California Style (invited editorial), in Anesthesia and Analgesia, v. 110 (3), pp. 655-656, doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181cd443d, March 2010.

97.  Stewart, J. P., S. J. Brandenberg, J. Fletcher, J. R. Gingery, K. W. Hudnut, T. McCrink, J. F. Meneses, D. Murbach, T. Rockwell, J. Tinsley, Preliminary Report on Seismological and Geotechnical Engineering Aspects of the April 4 2010 Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) Earthquake, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Reconnaissance (GEER) Association Report No. GEER-023, Version 1. June 15, 2010. [ EQ Reports/Baja California_2010/Baja_Index_2010.html]

98.  Stansell, T.A., K.W. Hudnut and R.G. Keegan, GPS L1C:  Enhanced performance, receiver design suggestions and key contributions, in Proceedings of the 23rd Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2010), 21-24 Sept. 2010, Portland, Oregon, pp. 2860-2873, 2010 []

99.   Holzer, T. L., A. S. Jayko, E. Hauksson, J. P. B. Fletcher, T. E. Noce, M. J. Bennett, C. M. Dietel and K. W. Hudnut, Liquefaction caused by the 2009 Olancha, California (USA), M 5.2 earthquake, Engineering Geology, 27 October 2010, v. 116, no. 1-2, Pages 184-188; Description: Description: 

100.         Lynch, D. K., K. W. Hudnut and D. S. P. Dearborn, Low-altitude Aerial Color Digital Photographic Survey of the San Andreas Fault, Seis. Res. Lett., v. 81 (3), May/June 2010, pp. 453-459, 2010. []

101.         Hayes, G.P., R.W. Briggs, A. Sladen, E.J. Fielding, C.S. Prentice, K.W. Hudnut, P. Mann, F.W. Taylor, A.J. Crone, R.D. Gold, T. Ito, M. Simons, Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti, Nature Geoscience, 10 Oct. 2010, v. 3, pp. 800-805, doi:10.1038/ngeo977 []

102.         Prentice, C.S., P. Mann, A.J. Crone, R.D. Gold, K.W. Hudnut, R.W. Briggs, R.D. Koehler, P. Jean, Tectonic geomorphology and seismic hazard of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault in Haiti, Nature Geoscience, 24 Oct. 2010, v. 3, pp. 789-793, doi:10.1038/ngeo991 []

103.         Earth, American Geological Institute (AGI), March 2011 issue; photos credited on p. 14 & p. 15; article “Baja Quake Produced Startling, ‘Weird’ Results” by H. Leifert [].

104.         Stansell, T., K. Hudnut and R. Keegan, Future wave:  L1C signal performance and receiver design, GPS World, 1 April 2011 (cover article), pp. 30-36 & 41, 2011. [] or [ - /26]

105.         Porter, K., L. Jones, D. Cox, J. Goltz, K. Hudnut, D. Mileti, S. Perry, D. Ponti, M. Reichle, C. Scawthorn, H. Seligson, K. Shoaf and A. Wein, The ShakeOut Scenario: a Hypothetical MW7.8 Earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault, Earthquake Spectra, Volume 27, No. 2, pages 239–261, May 2011. []

106.         Porter, K., K. Hudnut, S. Perry, M. Reichle, C. Scawthorn and A. Wein, Forward - ShakeOut Scenario Special Issue, Earthquake Spectra, Volume 27, No. 2, pages 235–237, May 2011. []

107.         Graves, R. W., B. T. Aagaard and K. W. Hudnut, The ShakeOut earthquake source and ground motion simulations, Earthquake Spectra, Volume 27, No. 2, pages 273–291, May 2011. []

108.         Nuestra Tierra, Universidad Nacional de Mexico (UNAM), No. 15, 30 June 2011 issue, ISSN 1665-945X; photos and figures credited on p. 4, p. 6, & back cover; cover article “Sismos en el Alto Golfo de California: tres ejemplos recientes” by J. M. Stock [].

109.         Wei, S., E. Fielding, S. Leprince, A. Sladen, J.-P. Avouac, D. Helmberger, E. Hauksson, R. Chu, M. Simons, K. Hudnut, T. Herring and R. Briggs, Superficial simplicity of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of Baja California in Mexico, Nature Geoscience (AOP) 31 July 2011, doi:10.1038/ngeo1213, 2011. []

110.         Oskin, M. E., J R. Arrowsmith, A. Hinojosa Corona, A. J. Elliott, J. M. Fletcher, E. Fielding, P. O. Gold, J. J. Gonzalez Garcia, K. W. Hudnut, O. Kreylos, O. Teran, Surface rupture complexity of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake quantified by airborne LiDAR, Science, 10 February 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6069 pp. 702-705, doi: 10.1126/science.1213778, 2012. []

111.        Salisbury, J.B., T.K. Rockwell, T.J. Middleton and K.W. Hudnut, LiDAR and field observations of slip distribution for the most recent surface ruptures along the central San Jacinto fault, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 102, No. 2, pp. 598-619, doi: 10.1785/0120110068, 2012. []

112.         Liu-Zeng, Jing,  J. Sun, P. Wang, K. W. Hudnut, C. Ji, Z. Zhang, Q. Xu, and L. Wen, Surface ruptures on the transverse Xiaoyudong fault: A significant segment boundary breached during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China, Tectonophysics, v. 580, pp. 218-241, 2012. []

113.         Zhan, Z., D. Helmberger, M. Simons, H. Kanamori, W. Wu, N. Cubas, Z. Duputel, R. Chu, V. C. Tsai, J.-P. Avouac, K. W. Hudnut, S. Ni, E. Hetland and F. H. Ortega Culaciati, Anomalously steep dips of earthquakes in the 2011 Tohoku-Oki source region and possible explanations, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 353–354, pp. 121–133, 2012. []

114.         Lynch, D. K., Hudnut, K. W., Adams, P. M., Development and Growth of Recently-Exposed Fumarole Fields near Mullet Island, Imperial County, California, Geomorphology (2013), doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.04.022 []

115.         S. Wei, D. Helmberger, S. Owen, R. W. Graves, K. W. Hudnut, and E. J. Fielding. Complementary slip distributions of the largest earthquakes in the 2012 Brawley swarm, Imperial Valley, California. Geophysical Research Letters. doi:10.1002/grl.50259, 2013. []

116.         E. Hauksson, J. Stock, R. Bilham, M. Boese, X. Chen, E. Fielding, J. Galetzka, K. Hudnut, K. Hutton, L. Jones, H. Kanamori, P. Shearer, J. Steidl, J. Treiman, S. Wei, and W. Yang, Report on the August 2012 Brawley Earthquake Swarm in Imperial Valley, Southern California, Seismological Research Letters, v. 84, p. 177-189, doi:10.1785/0220120169, 2013. []

117.         Glennie, C., B. Brooks, T. Ericksen, D. Hauser, K. Hudnut, J. Foster, J. Avery, Compact multipurpose mobile laser scanning system – initial tests and results, Remote Sens., 5, 521-538; doi:10.3390/rs5020521, 2013. []

118.         2012 Global Positioning System Satellite Laser Ranging Mitigation Study, Final Report (geodetic requirements for GPS-SLR document; study began in 2007 - final report dated April 19, 2013; participated in Assessment Working Group), 52 pp.; Signed 29 April 2013 by AFSPC & NASA. [FOUO]

119.         B. A. Brooks, C. Glennie, K. W. Hudnut, T. Ericksen, D. Hauser, J. Foster, J. Avery, Mobile Laser Scanning Applied to the Earth Sciences; EOS, Vol. 94, No. 36, pp. 313-315, 3 Sept. 2013. []

120.        Jones, L.M, K.W. Hudnut, G. Beroza and R.W. Graves, Earth Sciences and Seismology (chapter), in Northridge 20 Symposium; The 1994 Northridge Earthquake:  Impacts, Outcomes and Next Steps (report), Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles, 2014.



121.        NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment L1C Interface; Interface Specification IS-GPS-800D (signal design and definition document: study began in 2003 - initial release 4 September 2008; latest revision (dated 24-September-2013) was signed off on 21 March 2014; Hudnut led GPS L1C design team), 127 pp.; Global Positioning Systems Directorate, Systems Engineering & Integration, Los Angeles Air Force Base, United States Air Force. []


122.        Chen, T., Z. Peizhen, J. Liu-Zeng, Y. Li, Z. Ren, K. W. Hudnut, Quantitative study of tectonic geomorphology along the Haiyuan fault based on airborne LiDAR, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese and English), v. 59, No. 14, pp. 1293-1304, doi 10.1007/s11434-014-0199-4, 2014. (selected by editor as cover article) []

123.        Fletcher, J.M., Teran, O.J., Rockwell, T.K., Oskin, M.E., Hudnut, K.W., Mueller, K.J., Spelz, R.M., Akciz, S.O., Masana, E., Faneros, Fielding, E., Leprince, S., G., Morelan, A.E., Stock, J., Lynch, D.K., Elliott, A., P. Gold, Jing Liu-Zeng, A. Gonzalez-Ortega, A. Hinojosa-Corona, J. Gonzalez-Garcia. Assembly of a large earthquake from a complex fault system: Surface rupture kinematics of the April 4, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Mw7.2 earthquake, Geosphere, doi: 10.1130/GES00933.1, 2014. []

124.        GEER report:  Beyzaei, C., J. Bray, J. Cohen-Waeber, T. Dawson, L. Harder, K. Hudnut, K. Kelson, T. Kishida, R. Lanzafame, R. Luque, D. Ponti, M. Shriro, N. Sitar, N. Wagner, J. Wesling, GEER Association Report No. GEER-037; Geotechnical Engineering Reconnaissance of the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake (v.1, Sept. 15, 2014 and v.2, Oct. 11, 2014). EQ Reports/SouthNapa_2014/GEER_SouthNapa_10-11-2014_reduced.pdf

125.        EERI report:  Almufti, I., A. Barbosa, J. Bray, T. Dawson, J. Marrow, M. Mieler, C. Scawthorn, M. Yashinsky, H. Tremayne, M. Ortiz, A. Julius, M. Greene, A. Rosinski, L. Blair, F. Turner, K. Kelson, K. Hudnut, D. Ponti, J. Wesling, B. Barnhart, J. Bray, J. Cohen-Waeber, T. Kishida, N. Sitar, C. Beyzaei, L. Harder, R. Lanzafame, R. Luque, M. Shriro, N. Wagner, C. Scawthorne, J. Eidinger, M. Mieler, J. Maffei, B. Matheson, D. Hutchings Mieler, L. Stevig, W. Chang, A. Barbosa, D. McCormick, M. Schotanus, Rutherford & Chekene, B. Tremayne, H. Culley, A. Yiu, L. Biscombe, M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake of August 24, 2014, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Special Report – October 2014.

126.        Hudnut, K.W., Brocher, T.M., Prentice, C.S., Boatwright, J., Brooks, B.A., Aagaard, B.T., Blair, J.L., Fletcher, J.B., Erdem, J.E., Wicks, C.W., Murray, J.R., Pollitz, F.F., Langbein, J., Svarc, J., Schwartz, D.P., Ponti, D.J., Hecker, S., DeLong, S., Rosa, C., Jones, B., Lamb, R., Rosinski, A., McCrink, T.P., Dawson, T.E., Seitz, G., Rubin, R.S., Glennie, C., Hauser, D., Ericksen, T., Mardock, D., Hoirup, D.F., and Bray, J.D., 2014, Key recovery factors for the August 24, 2014, South Napa earthquake: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1249, 51 p.,

127.        Chen, T., S. O. Akciz, K. W. Hudnut, D. Z. Zhang, and J. M. Stock, 2015, Fault‐Slip Distribution of the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake, California, Estimated from Postearthquake Airborne LiDAR Data; Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America,  doi: 10.1785/0120130108.

128.        Brocher, Thomas M., Annemarie S. Baltay, Jeanne L. Hardebeck, Fred F. Pollitz, Jessica R. Murray, Andrea L. Llenos, David P. Schwartz, James Luke Blair, Daniel J. Ponti, James J. Lienkaemper, Victoria E. Langenheim, Timothy E. Dawson, Kenneth W. Hudnut, David R. Shelly, Douglas S. Dreger, John Boatwright, Brad T. Aagaard, David J. Wald, Richard M. Allen, William D. Barnhart, Keith L. Knudsen, Benjamin A. Brooks, and Katherine M. Scharer, The Mw 6.0 24 August 2014 South Napa Earthquake, Seismological Research Letters, Volume 86, Number 2A March/April 2015, doi: 10.1785/0220150004.

129.        Wei, Shengji, Sylvain Barbot, Robert Graves, James J. Lienkaemper, Teng Wang, Kenneth Hudnut, Yuning Fu, and Don Helmberger, The 2014 Mw 6.1 South Napa Earthquake: A Unilateral Rupture with Shallow Asperity and Rapid Afterslip, Seismological Research Letters, Volume 86, Number 2A March/April 2015, doi: 10.1785/0220140249.

130.        Wei, S., Avouac, J-P,  K. W. Hudnut, A. Donnellan, J. W. Parker, R. W. Graves, D. Helmberger, E. Fielding, Z. Liu, F. Cappa, M. Eneva, The 2012 Brawley Swarm Triggered by Injection-Induced Aseismic Slip, Earth & Planetary Science Letters, v. 422, July 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.03.054.

131.        Teran, O. J., J. M. Fletcher, M. E. Oskin, T. K. Rockwell, K. W. Hudnut, R. M. Spelz, S. O. Akciz,. A.P. Hernandez-Flores, Alex Morellan, Geologic and structural controls on rupture zone fabric: A field-based study of the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake surface rupture, Geosphere, 11(3):1-22, May 2015, DOI: 10.1130/GES01078.1

132.        J. Galetzka, D. Melgar, J. F. Genrich, J. Geng, S. Owen, E. O. Lindsey, X. Xu, Y. Bock, J.-P. Avouac, L. B. Adhikari, B. N. Upreti, B. Pratt-Sitaula, T. N. Bhattarai, B. P. Sitaula, A. Moore, K. W. Hudnut, W. Szeliga, J. Normandeau, M. Fend, M. Flouzat, L. Bollinger, P. Shrestha, B. Koirala, U. Gautam, M. Bhatterai, R. Gupta, T. Kandel, C. Timsina, S. N. Sapkota, S. Rajaure,,N. Maharjan, Slip pulse and resonance of the Kathmandu basin during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal, Science, Vol. 349, No. 6252, pp. 1091-1095, 4 September 2015 (on-line 6 August 2015 v.1), DOI: 10.1126/science.aac6383v2

133.      Yun, Sang-Ho, K. Hudnut, S. Owen, F. Webb, M. Simons, P. Sacco, E. Gurrola, G. Manipon, C. Liang, E. Fielding, P. Milillo, H. Hua, A. Coletta, Rapid Damage Mapping for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha Earthquake using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data from COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-2 Satellites, Seis. Res. Lett., v. 86, No. 6, pp. 1549-1556, (Nov./Dec. 2015), DOI: 10.1785/0220150152.


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Natural Hazardsearthquakes

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A National Hazard, Risk, and Resilience Assessment Program

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Kenneth Hudnut
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