USGS - science for a changing world

USGS Professional Pages

Blank space
Search USGS Professionals Featured Profiles Blank space Frequently Asked Questions  |  About The USGS Professional Pages
bio image of David  Parkhurst

David Parkhurst

Research Hydrologist

Contact Info


Short Biography

I have worked for the U.S. Geological Survey since high school. Before going to graduate school, I worked on calcite dissolution kinetics, sediment pore water chemistry, and geochemical modeling. I received a Master’s degree from Stanford University in 1985, and worked for the District Office in Oklahoma City on abandoned lead and zinc mines, the Roubidoux Aquifer, and a pilot NAWQA project. In 1989 I became chief of the Reactive-Transport Modeling project in Denver.  I develop geochemical reaction and transport models that can be used to investigate contaminant migration, acid mine drainage, nuclear waste disposal, and carbon sequestration.



Read Full Professional Summary

Publications

Charlton, S.R., and Parkhurst, D.L., 2012, Phast4Windows: A 3D graphical user interface for the reactive-transport simulator PHAST: Ground Water, in press.

Charlton, S.R., and Parkhurst, D.L., 2011, Modules based on the geochemical model PHREEQC for use in scripting and programming languages: Computers and Geosciences, vol. 37, no. 10, p. 1653-1663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2011.02.005 [Link]

Müller, Mike, Parkhurst, D.L., Charlton, S.R., 2011, Programming PHREEQC calculations with C++ and Python, a comparative study: in Maxwell, R., Poeter, E., Hill, M.C., and Zheng, C., eds., MODFLOW and More 2011: Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Conference Proceedings, June 5–8, 2011, Golden, Colorado, p. 632–636.

Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Charlton, Scott R., 2010. PHAST Version 2-A Program for Simulating Groundwater Flow, Solute Transport, and Multicomponent Geochemical Reactions. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A35, xii, 235 p. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Parkhurst, D.L., Means, B., McKenzie, R., and Arthur, W., 2010, Using the computer program AMDTreat with a PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume: in Mine Water and Innovative Thinking, Wolkersdorfer, Christian, and Freund, Antje eds., International Mine Water Association 2010 Symposium, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, p. 111-114. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Parkhurst, D.L., Means, B., McKenzie, R., Morris, H., and Arthur, W., 2010, A geochemical module for “AMDTreat” to compute caustic quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume: in Bridging Reclamation, Science and Community, Barnhisel, R.I. ed., 2010 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, June 5-11, 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Lexington, Kentucky, p. 1413-1436. [Link]

Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I., 2009. Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3013, 4 p. [Link]

Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L., 2009. Geochemical Investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, South-Central Oklahoma, 2004-06. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5036, vi, 51 p. [Link]

Yager, Richard M.; Misut, Paul E.; Langevin, Christian D.; Parkhurst, David L., 2009. Brine Migration from a Flooded Salt Mine in the Genesee Valley, Livingston County, New York: Geochemical Modeling and Simulation of Variable-Density Flow. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1767, Report: vii, 52 p.; Animations [Link]

Parkhurst, David L.; Charlton, Scott R., 2008. NetpathXL - An Excel Interface to the Program NETPATH. Geological Survey (U.S.) Techniques and Methods 6-A26, iii, 11 p. [Link]

Schmidt, Heather C. Ross; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Parkhurst, David L., 2007. Geochemical Effects of Induced Stream-Water and Artificial Recharge on the Equus Beds Aquifer, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2004. Geological Survey (U.S.) Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5025, vi, 59 p. [Link]

Christenson, Scott; Parkhurst, David; Hunt, Andrew G.; Athay, Denae, 2006. Age-dating ground water beneath Tinker Air Force Base, Midwest City, Oklahoma, 2003-04. Fact Sheet 2005-3099, 4 p. [Link]

Petkewich, Matthew D.; Parkhurst, David L.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Campbell, Bruce G.; Mirecki, June E., 2004. Hydrologic and Geochemical Evaluation of Aquifer Storage Recovery in the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo Aquifer, Charleston, South Carolina, 1998-2002. Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5046, 92 p. [Link]

Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R., 2004. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions. Techniques and Methods 6-A8, 154 p. [Link]

Thorstenson, D.C., and Parkhurst, D.L., 2004, Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, p. 2,449-2,465.

Parkhurst, D.L., 2004, PHREEQC—A computer program for geochemical calculations: International Ground Water Modeling Center Newsletter, Colorado School of Mines, v. 22, no. 2, p. 2.

Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A., 2003. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4017, v, 33 p. : ill., col. maps ; 28 cm. [Link]

Thorstenson, Donald C.; Parkhurst, David L., 2002. Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for implementation in geochemical models. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2002-4172, iv, 129 p. ; 28 cm. [Link]

Charlton, S. R.; Parkhurst, D. L., 2002. PHREEQCI -- A Graphical User Interface to the Geochemical Model PHREEQC. Fact Sheet 031-02, 2 p. [Link]

Parkhurst, D.L., and Petkewich, M.D., 2002, Geochemical modeling of an aquifer storage recovery experiment, Charleston, South Carolina, in U.S. Geological Survey Artificial Recharge Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento, California, April 2-4, 2002, G. Aiken, ed.: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-89, pp. 37-40.

Parkhurst, D.L., and Kipp, K.L., 2002, Parallel processing for PHAST--A three-dimensional reactive-transport simulator, in Hassanizadeh, S.M., Schlotting, R.J., Gray, W.H., and Pinder, G.F., eds., Computational methods in water resources, v.2, Develeopments in water science, n. 47, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Elsevier, p. 711-718.

Parkhurst, D.L., Thorstenson, D.C., and Kipp, K.L., 2000, Calculating carbon-isotope compositions in an unsaturated zone with seasonally varying CO2 production: in Wang, Yanxin, ed., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hydrogeology and the Environment: October 17-21, 2000, Wuhan, P.R. China, p. 220-224.

Parkhurst, David L.; Appelo, C. A. J., 1999. User's guide to PHREEQC (Version 2) : a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. U.S. Geological Survey : Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor], Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4259, xiv, 312 p. :ill. ;28 cm.

Christenson, Scott, Parkhurst, D.L., and Breit, G.N., 1998, Summary of geochemical and geohydrologic investigations of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, in Christenson, Scott., and Havens, J.S., eds., Ground-water quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma: Results of investigations: Water Supply Paper 2357A, p. 107-117.

Charlton, Scott R.; Macklin, Clifford L.; Parkhurst, David L., 1997. PHREEQCI; a graphical user interface for the geochemical computer program PHREEQC. U.S. Geological Survey ; Branch of Information Services, [distributor], Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4222, 9 p.

Christenson, Scott, Parkhurst, D.L., and Breit, G.N., 1997, Summary of geochemical and geohydrologic investigations of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, in Christenson, Scott., and Havens, J.S., eds., Ground-water quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma: Results of investigations: Water Resources Investigations Report 97-4186, p. 107-117.

Parkhurst, D.L., 1997, Geochemical mole-balance modeling with uncertain data: Water Resources Research, v. 33, no. 8, p. 1957-1970.

Parkhurst, David L.; Christenson, Scott C.; Breit, George N. , 1996. Ground-water-quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations. U.S. G.P.O. ; For sale by U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services, Water Supply Paper 2357-C, ix, 101 p. :ill., maps (some col.) ;28 cm.

Parkhurst, D. L., 1995. User's guide to PHREEQC, a computer program for speciation, reaction-path, advective-transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. U.S. Geological Survey ; U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor], Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4227, viii, 143 p. :ill. ;28 cm.

Plummer, L. Niel; Prestemon, Eric C.; Parkhurst, David L., 1994. An interactive code (NETPATH) for modeling NET geochemical reactions along a flow PATH, version 2.0. U.S. Geological Survey ;USGS Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor], Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4169, iv, 130 p. ;28 cm.

Parkhurst, David L.; Christenson, Scott C.; Schlottmann, Jamie L. , 1994. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987. U.S. G.P.O., Water Supply Paper 2357-B, viii, 74 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.

Christenson, S.C., Parkhurst, D.L., and Fairchild, R.W., 1994, Geohydrology and water quality of the Roubidoux Aquifer, northeastern Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular 96, 70 p.

Parkhurst, D. L.; Christenson, S. C.; Breit, G. N., 1993. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations. U.S. Geological Survey ; Books and Open-File Reports Section [distributor], Open-File Report 92-642, viii, 113 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.

Glynn, P.D., and Parkhurst, D.L., 1992, Modeling non-ideal solid-solution aqueous-solution reactions in mass-transfer computer codes, in Kharaka, Y.K., and Maest, A.S., eds., Water- Rock Interaction 7: Rotterdam, Balkema, p. 175-179.

Parkhurst, D.L., 1992, The geochemical evolution of ground waters in the Central Oklahoma aquifer, in Christenson, Scott, and Carpenter, Lyn, eds., Ground-water quality of the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer conference: Proceedings, February 20, 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-116, p. 7-9.

Plummer, L.N., Prestemon, E.C., and Parkhurst, D.L., 1992, NETPATH—an interactive code for interpreting NET geochemical reactions from chemical and isotopic data along a flow PATH, in Kharaka, Y.K., and Maest, A.S., eds., Water-Rock Interaction 7: Rotterdam, Balkema, p. 239-242.

Plummer, L. N.; Prestemon, E. C.; Parkhurst, D. L., 1991. An interactive code (NETPATH) for modeling NET geochemical reactions along a flow PATH. U.S. Geological Survey ; Books and Open-File Reports Section, Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4078, iv, 227 p. ;28 cm. +1 computer disk (5 1/4 in.)

Christenson, S. C.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Fairchild, R. W., 1990. Geohydrology and water quality of the Roubidoux Aquifer, northeastern Oklahoma. U.S. Geological Survey ; Books and Open-File Report Section [distributor], Open-File Report 90-570, vi, 110 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.

Nordstrom, D.K., Plummer, L.N., Langmuir, Donald, Busenberg, Eurybiades, May, H.M., Jones, B.F., and Parkhurst, D.L., 1990, Revised chemical equilibrium data for major water-mineral reactions and their limitations in Bassett, R.L. and Melchior, D. eds., Chemical modeling in aqueous systems II: Washington D.C., American Chemical Society Symposium Series 416., chap. 31, p. 398-413.

Parkhurst, D.L., 1990, Ion-association models and mean-activity coefficients of various salts, in Bassett, R.L. and Melchior, D. eds., Chemical modeling in aqueous systems II: Washington D.C., American Chemical Society Symposium Series 416. chap. 3, p. 30-43.

Plummer, L.N. and Parkhurst, D.L., 1990, Application of the Pitzer equations to the PHREEQE geochemical model in Bassett, R.L. and Melchior, D. eds., Chemical modeling in aqueous systems II: Washington D.C., American Chemical Society Symposium Series 416, chap. 10, p. 128-137.

Parkhurst, D. L.; Christenson, S. C.; Schlottmann, J. L., 1989. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987. U.S. Geological Survey ; Books and Open-File Report Section [distributor], Open-File Report 88-728, viii, 80 p. :ill. ;28 cm.

Plummer, L. N.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Fleming, G. W.; Dunkle, S. A., 1988. A computer program incorporating Pitzer's equations for calculation of geochemical reactions in brines. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4153, vi, 310 p. :ill. ;28 cm.

Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn, Paul P., Jr., 1988. Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 88-469, iii, 13 p. : ill., maps ;28 cm. [Link]

Parkhurst, D.L., 1988, Mine-water discharge, metal loading, and chemical reactions, in Ragone, S.E. ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste -- Ground-Water Contamination: Proceedings of the second technical meeting, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, October 21-25, 1985: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-481, p. D5-D10.

Parkhurst, David L. , 1987. Chemical analyses of water samples from the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 87-453, iv, 43 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm. [Link]

Christenson, S.C., and Parkhurst, D.L., 1987, Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma - project description: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-235, 30 p.

Parkhurst, D.L., 1985, The application of EXAFS and mean activity coefficient data to ion- association models for the zinc-chloride system: Thesis, Stanford University, 71 p.

Muller, A.B., Parkhurst, D.L., and Tasker, P.W., 1986, The use of the PHREEQE code in modelling environmental geochemical problems encountered in performance assessment modelling, in Symposium on Ground-water Flow and Transport Modelling for Performance Assessment of Deep Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste--A Critical Evaluation of the State of the Art: Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy, Civilian Waste Management, May 20-21, 1985, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Goodwin, S. D.; Schultz, B. I.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Simon, N. S.; Callendar, Edward , 1984. Methods for the collection of geochemical data from the sediments of the tidal Potomac River and estuary and data for 1978-1980. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 84-74, iii, 156 p. 8 cm.

Hearn, P.P., Parkhurst, D.L., and Callender, Edward, 1983, Authigenic vivianite in Potomac River sediments--Control by ferric oxy-hydroxides: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 53, p. 165-177.

Plummer, L.N., Parkhurst, D.L., and Thorstenson, D.C., 1983, Development of reaction models in ground-water systems: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 47, p. 665-686.

Parkhurst, David L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Thorstenson, Donald C., 1982. BALANCE : a computer program for calculating mass transfer for geochemical reactions in ground water. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 82-14, iii, 29 p. ;28 cm.

Parkhurst, David L.; Thorstenson, Donald C.; Plummer, L. Niel, 1980. PHREEQE : a computer program for geochemical calculations. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, Water-Resources Investigations Report 80-96, v, 210 p. :ill. ;28 cm.

Parkhurst, D.L., and Callender, Edward, 1979, Geochemistry of sediments and associated- interstitial waters for the tidal Potomac River: in Bennett, J.P., ed., Seminar on Water Quality in the Tidal Potomac River, December 1978: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-1588.

Plummer, L.N., Wigley, T.M.L., and Parkhurst, D.L., 1979, Critical review of the kinetics of calcite dissolution and precipitation, in Jenne, E.A., ed., Chemical modeling in aqueous systems-- Speciation, sorption, solubility, and kinetics: American Chemical Society Symposium Series, No. 93, p. 537-573.

Plummer, L.N., Wigley, T.M.L., and Parkhurst, D.L., 1978, The kinetics of calcite dissolution in CO2-water systems at 5 to 60 C and 0.0 to 1.0 atm CO2: American Journal of Science 278, p. 179-216.

Plummer, L. Niel; Parkhurst, David L.; Kosiur, David R., 1975. MIX2 : a computer program for modeling chemical reaction in natural waters. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, Water-Resources Investigations Report 75-61, iii, 68 leaves ;27 cm.






                           

My Science Topics


Science Topic
Subtopic
Water Resourcesaquifers
Water Resourcesdrainage basins
Water Resourcesestuaries
Water Resourcesground water
Water Resourcesground-water quality
Water Resourceswater quality
Techniques and Methodscomputational methods
Techniques and Methodsmathematical modeling
Hydrologic Processesground-water flow
Hydrologic Processeshydrology
Hydrologic Processessaltwater intrusion
Oceans and Coastlinesmarine water quality



My USGS Science Strategy Areas

Energy & Minerals for America's Future

A Water Census of the United States

Climate Variability & Change

Problem: To understand contaminant migration and natural geochemical processes, we need to be able to model the movement of substances undergoing biogeogeochemical reactions in groundwater systems. Models that simulate physical, chemical, and bio­logical processes during contaminant migration are an effective way to evaluate the designs of chemical and nuclear waste repositories; to mini­mize the expenses of field studies of contaminant movement and site remediation; to evaluate the aquifer vulnerability to contaminants; and to investigate rock-water interactions, such as the formation of ore deposits, in situ min­ing, CO2 sequestration, and the natural evolution of ground-water chemistry.

Objectives: The principal objectives of the project are (1) to develop gener­al-use computer models that can identify and simulate geochemical and biological processes in flowing ground-water systems, and (2) to apply these models in field investigations.

Approach: The approach of the project has been to develop a geochemical model that simulates a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic biogeochem­ical processes, followed by development of more complete models that in­clude the additional processes of flow and transport. These models that simulate reaction and transport are applied to field investigations to de­duce the important chemical and biological reactions and to determine rate expressions that describe these reactions.


Supported Software:

PHREEQC programs

PHREEQC: Batch geochemical reaction model that has capabilities to (1) speciate a water analysis to calculate saturation indices; (2) calculate reactions in a beaker, including mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas phases, ion exchange, surface complexation, solid solutions, and general kinetic reactions, plus the effects of temperature and pressure; (3) one-dimensional transport, including advection, dispersion, diffusion, multicomponent diffusion, diffusion through surface layers, and simultaneous chemical reactions; and (4) inverse modeling, which calculates the geochemical reactions necessary to account for the change in composition from one water composition to another.

PhreeqcI: Graphical user interface to PHREEQC that allows developing input files with screens to guide input and formatting, running simulations, and producing charts.

IPhreeqc: A module containing all of the capabilities of PHREEQC that is designed to be incorporated into other software, particularly reactive-transport models. IPhreeqc can be the geochemical calculation engine for applications that need results of geochemical reaction modeling. For example AMDTreat uses IPhreeqc to calculate the amount of base needed to treat acid mine drainage. The COM version of IPhreeqc can be used in Excel, Visual Basic, Python, Matlab, and other software that interfaces with Microsoft COMs.

PHAST programs

PHAST: Reactive transport model based on PHREEQC and HST (Ken Kipp) that simulates groundwater flow, solute transport, and geochemical reactions. All of the reaction capabilities of PHREEQC are available.

Phast4Windows: Three-dimensional graphical user interface for PHAST. Model features are defined with spatial (not grid) coordinates. Features can be defined, viewed, and edited in the interface. ARCGIS coverages can be used to define zones in the model domain, for which model parameters can be defined. All data is readily accessible in a data tree and visualizations can be zoomed, panned, and 3D rotated. Serial or parallel versions of the code can be run from the interface.

Model Viewer: A version of the Model Viewer software (Hsieh and Winston) is maintained to visualize results of PHAST calculations. During a PHAST run, specified data are written to HDF (hierarchical data format) files, which can be visualized in three dimensions with Model Viewer.

NETPATH programs

NetpathXL: Inverse geochemical model developed by Plummer and others. NetpathXL uses Excel to define the concentrations from chemical analyses, while the inverse modeling is the same as the original Netpath program.


Contact Information

David Parkhurst
West 6th Ave. & Kipling St., DFC Bldg. 53
Lakewood, CO 80225-0046
dlpark@usgs.gov
303-236-5098
303-236-5034 - Fax
Back to top

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://profile.usgs.gov/professional/mypage.php
Page Contact Information:Ask USGS
Page Last Modified: January 24 2013 17:21:51.
Version: 2.6