USGS Professional Pages
Res. HydrologistContact Info
I was raised in Glastonbury, CT, where I first learned to appreciate nature, which was reinforced with frequent trips to northern New England, especially Maine. I attended Glastonbury High School, where I took college-level physics and calculus, and graduated 15th in a 1971 class of about 250. I studied civil engineering at the University of Connecticut with a focus on “environmental and water resources”, and obtained a BS in 1975. I then moved to Lincoln, NE, and worked for the University of Nebraska on a project studying artificial recharge of groundwater. That led to my current position, in 1979, with the USGS National Research Program, where I have worked on projects involving the unsaturated zone and evapotranspiration.
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1. Lichtler, W. F., Stannard, D. I., and Kouma, Edwin, 1979, Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska, 2-year progress report: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-1492, 58 p.
2. Lichtler, W. F., Stannard, D. I., and Kouma, Edwin, 1980, Investigation of artificial recharge of aquifers in Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 80-93, 112 p.
3. Stannard, D. I., 1985, Design and performance of a machine used in the calculation of Bowen ratios: Proceedings, National Water Well Association (NWWA) Conference on Characterization and Monitoring of the Vadose (Unsaturated) Zone, Denver, Dec., 1985 p. 143-157.
4. Stannard, D. I., 1986, Theory, construction, and operation of simple tensiometers: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 6, no. 3, Water Well Journal Publishing Co., p. 70- 78.
5. Weaver, H. L., Weeks, E. P., Campbell, G.S., Stannard, D.I., and Tanner, B. D., 1986, Phreatophyte water use estimated by eddy-correlation methods: Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers Water Forum '86: World Water Issues in Evolution, Long Beach, CA, Aug. 1986, v. 1, p. 847-854.
6. Stannard, D. I., 1988, Use of a hemispherical chamber for measurement of evapotranspiration: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-452, 18 p.
7. Stannard, D. I., 1990(a), Energy-budget eddy-correlation technique: in Czarnecki, J.B., Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-356, p. 32-45.
8. Stannard, D.I., 1990(b), Tensiometers--theory, construction, and use: in Nielsen, D.M., and Johnson, A.I., Ground Water and Vadose Zone Monitoring: American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Special Technical Publication 1053, ASTM, Philadelphia, p. 34-51.
9. Stannard, D. I., and Rosenberry, D. O., 1991, A comparison of short-term measurements of lake evaporation using eddy correlation and energy budget methods: Journal of Hydrology, v. 122, p. 15-22.
10. Blanford, J. H., and Stannard, D. I., 1991, Spatial variability of energy fluxes at Walnut Gulch: Proceedings, American Meteorological Society Special Session on Hydrometeorology, 1991, Salt Lake City, p. 158-160.
11. Kustas, W.P., Moran, M.S., Pinter, P.J., Hipps, L.E., Swiatek, E., Stannard, D.I., and Blanford, J.H., 1991, Issues in mapping evapotranspiration over large areas with remote sensing data from Monsoon '90: Proceedings, American meteorological Society Special Session on Hydrometeorology, 1991, Salt Lake City, p. 151-154.
12. Kustas, W.P., Goodrich, D.C., Moran, M.S., Amer, S.A., Bach, L.B., Blanford, J.H., Chebouni, A., Claassen, H. Clements, W. D., Doraiswamy, P.C., Dubois, P., Clarke, T.R., Daughtry, C. S. T., Gellman, D. I., Grant, T. A., Hipps, L. E., Huete, A.R., Humes, K.S., Jackson, T.J., Keefer, T.O., Nichols, W.D., Parry, R., Perry E.M., Pinker, R.T., Pinter, P. J. Jr., Qi, J., Riggs, A.C., Schmugge, T.J., Shutko, A.M., Stannard, D.I., Swiatek, E., van Leeuwen, J.D., van Zyl, J., Vidal, A., Washburne, J., and Weltz, M.A., 1991, An interdisciplinary field study of the energy and water fluxes in the atmosphere-biosphere system over semiarid rangelands: description and some preliminary results: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v. 72, no. 11, p. 1683-1705.
13. Moran, M.S., Kustas, W.P., Vidal, A., Stannard, D.I., and Blanford, J.H., 1991, Use of ground-based remotely sensed data for surface energy balance calculations during Monsoon '90: Proceedings, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1991, Espoo, Finland, p. 33-37.
14. Stannard, D.I., 1992(a), Tensiometers--theory, construction, and use: Geotechnical Testing Journal, v. 15, no. 1, p. 48-58 (revision of Stannard, 1990(b)).
15. Stannard, D.I., 1992(b), Bowen-ratio measurements at sites C and F: in Wilson, D.H., Reginato, R.J., and Hollett, K.J., editors, Evapotranspiration measurements of native vegetation, Owens Valley, California, June, 1986: U. S. Geological Survey Water- Resources Investigations Report 91-4159, Chap. B, p. 19-24.
16. Stannard, D. I., 1993, Comparison of Penman-Monteith, Shuttleworth-Wallace, and modified Priestley-Taylor evapotranspiration models for wild-land vegetation in semiarid rangeland: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 5, p. 1379-1392.
17. Humes, K. S., Kustas, W. P., Keefer, T. O., Goodrich, D. C., and Stannard, D. I., 1993, Ground based optical remote sensing measurements: in Jackson, T. J., and Schiebe, F. R., editors, Hydrology Data Report: Washita ’92: Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Water Quality Laboratory Report 93-1, Chap. XI, p. XI1-XI3.
18. Stannard, D.I., Kustas, W.P., Allwine, K.J., and Anderson, D.E., 1993, Micrometeorological data collection: in Jackson, T.J., and Schiebe, F.R., editors, Hydrology Data Report: Washita '92: Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Water Quality Laboratory Report #93-1, Chap. V, p. V1-V11.
19. Stannard, D.I., Blanford, J.H., Kustas, W.P., Nichols, W.D., Amer, S.A., Schmugge, T.J., and Weltz, M.A., 1994, Interpretation of surface flux measurements in heterogeneous terrain during the Monsoon '90 experiment: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1227-1239.
20. Kustas, W.P., Blanford, J.H., Stannard, D.I., Daughtry, C.S.T., Nichols, W.D., and Weltz, M.A., 1994, Local energy flux estimates for unstable conditions using variance data in semi-arid rangelands: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1351-1361.
21. Kustas, W.P., Moran, M.S., Humes, K.S., Stannard, D.I., Pinter, P.J., Jr., Hipps, L.E., Swiatek, E., and Goodrich, D.C., 1994, Surface energy balance estimates at local and regional scales using optical remote sensing from an aircraft platform and atmospheric data collected over semiarid rangelands: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1241- 1259.
22. Moran, M.S., Kustas, W.P., Vidal, A., Stannard, D.I., Blanford, J.H., and Nichols, W.D., 1994, Use of ground-based remotely sensed data for surface energy balance evaluation of a semiarid rangeland: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1339-1349.
23. Stannard, D.I., and Weaver, H.L., 1995, Measurements of evapotranspiration, surface- energy fluxes, weather variables, and water-table depths in the closed basin of the San Luis Valley, Alamosa County, Colorado, 1985-88: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-639, 61 p.
24. Kustas, W.P., Stannard, D.I., and Allwine, K.J., 1996, Variability in surface flux partitioning during Washita ’92: Resulting effects on Penman-Monteith and Priestley- Taylor parameters: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, v. 82, p. 171-193.
25. Stannard, D.I., 1997(a), Energy-budget eddy-correlation technique: in Czarnecki, J.B., Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California: U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2377, p. 25-35.
26. Stannard, D. I., 1997(b), A theoretically based determination of Bowen-ratio fetch requirements: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, v. 83, p. 375-406.
27. Stannard, D. I., Anderson, D. E., and Rosenberry, D. O., 1997, Problems in comparing short-term eddy-correlation and energy-budget measurements of evaporation from Williams lake: in Winter, T. C., editor, Hydrological and biogeochemical research in the Shingobee River headwaters area, north-central Minnesota: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4215, p. 41-46.
28. Anderson, D.E., Striegl, R.G., Stannard, D.I., Michmerhuizen, C.A., McConnaughey, T.A., and LaBaugh, J.W., 1999, Estimating lake-atmosphere CO2 exchange: Limnology & Oceanography, v. 44, no. 4, p. 988-1001.
29. Bossong, C.R., Caine, J.S., Stannard, D.I., Flynn, J.L., Stevens, M.R., and Heiny-Dash, J.S., 2003, Hydrologic conditions and assessment of water resources in the Turkey Creek Watershed, Jefferson County, Colorado, 1998-2001: U. S. Geological Survey Water- Resources Investigations Report 03-4034, 140 pgs.
30. Stannard, D.I., Rosenberry, D.O., Winter, T.C., and Parkhurst, R.S., 2004, Estimates of fetch-induced errors in Bowen-ratio energy-budget measurements of evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, USA: Wetlands, v. 24, no. 3, p. 498-513 (companion paper to #31).
31. Rosenberry, D.O., Stannard, D.I., Winter, T.C., and Martinez, M.L., 2004, Comparison of 13 equations for determining evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, USA: Wetlands, v. 24, no. 3, p. 483-497.
32. Stannard, D.I., and Weltz, M.A., 2006, Partitioning evapotranspiration in sparsely vegetated rangeland using a portable chamber: Water Resources Research, v. 42, W02413, doi:10.1029/2005WR004251, 13 pgs.
33. Cooper, D.J., Sanderson, J.S., Stannard, D.I., and Groeneveld, D.P., 2006, Effects of long- term water table drawdown on evapotranspiration and vegetation in an arid region phreatophyte community: Journal of Hydrology, v. 325, p. 21-34, doi 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.035.
34. Moreo, M.T., Laczniak, R.J., and Stannard, D.I., 2007, Evapotranspiration rate measurements of vegetation typical of ground-water discharge areas in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, Nevada and Utah, September 2005-August 2006; U. S. Geological Survey Scientific-Investigations Report 2007-5078, 36 pgs.
35. Masoner, J.R., Stannard, D.I., and Christenson, S.C., 2008, Differences in evaporation between a floating pan and Class A pan on land: Journal of American Water Resources Association, v. 44, no. 3, p. 552-561.
36. Riggs, A.C., Stannard, D.I., Maestas, F.B., Karlinger, M.R., and Striegl, R.G., 2009, Soil CO2 flux in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, during El Niño 1998 and La Niña 1999; U. S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5061, 25 pgs.
37. Stannard, D.I., Paul, W.T., Laws, R., and Poeter, E.P., 2010, Consumptive use and resulting leach-field water budget of a mountain residence: Journal of Hydrology, v. 388, no. 3-4, p. 335-349.
38. Masoner, J.R., and Stannard, D.I., 2010, A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands: Wetlands, v. 30, no. 3, p. 513-524.
My Science Topics
My USGS Science Strategy AreasClimate Variability & Change
Evapotranspiration Field Studies
I use micrometeorological methods to directly measure ET from wild-land or other vegetation, or open water, and develop ET models calibrated to the direct measurements. Model input typically is standard weather data enhanced with solar radiation, soil-heat flux, and soil moisture, providing the capability to predict ET accurately and inexpensively. Because ET occurs at the interface between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, I investigate a variety of subjects such as unsaturated zone hydrology, soil physics, energy flux and conservation, turbulent transport, solar radiation, long-wave radiation, boundary-layer evolution, advection, and plant biophysics. In pursuit of this research focus, I:
1) Develop new micrometeorological approaches to measure ET in a variety of challenging field settings.
2) Develop ET models with applications to specific locations to allow users to predict ET easily and inexpensively.
3) Investigate the performance of micrometeorological methods in complex terrain.
4) Relate changes in ET to changes in weather patterns (e.g. El Nino in a desert setting) or to changes in land use (e.g. agricultural conversion, forest thinning).
5) Develop guidelines for use of micrometeorological methods at limited fetch sites.
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