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Carol Kendall

Research Hydrologist

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Short Biography

Carol Kendall has been a research hydrologist (isotope biogeochemist) in the National Research Program (NRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey since 1980.  She is a 4th generation Californian who got her BS and MS in geology at UC-Riverside, and later her PhD in geology (with emphasis on geochemistry) at the University of Maryland while working full-time at the USGS Headquarters in Reston, VA.  Since 1990, she has been the head of the USGS Isotope Tracers research project in Menlo Park, CA.  The purpose of this NRP project is to develop new isotope methods and applications to solve problems of national importance.  In so doing, she has worked in watersheds all over the USA, at scales ranging from small pristine catchments in the Rockies and Appalachians, to large wetlands like the Everglades, and to large human-impacted basins like the Mississippi. The main focus of her recent research is using a multi-isotope approach to investigate the effects of flow and nutrients on various ecosystem problems in the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, their delta, and the San Francisco Bay.  Common aspects of most of her studies are: (1) that she usually piggybacks them on large-scale state and federal environmental monitoring programs (water quality, ecological, and atmospheric); and (2) that she uses a multi-isotope, multi-tracer approach for the various ecosystems studies, resulting in the development of many regional to continental-scale isoscapes.   



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Coplen, T.B., Kolesar, P., Taylor, R.E., Kendall, C., and Mooser, C., 1975, Investigations of the Dune geothermal anomaly, Imperial Valley, California, part IV. Geochemical studies of water, calcite, and silicates: Report No. 75‑20, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Riverside, 42 p.
 
Kendall, C., 1976, Petrology and stable isotope geochemistry of three wells in the Buttes area of the Salton Sea geothermal field, Imperial Valley, California: Report No. 76‑17, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Riverside, 211 p.
 
Coplen, T.B., Kendall, C., and Barnes, L.I., 1982, Comment on "Two new carbonate stable isotope standards" by Irving Friedman, James O'Neil, and Gerald Cebula: Geostandards Newsletter, 6: 257‑258.
 
Coplen, T.B., and Kendall, C., 1982, Preparation and stable isotope determination of NBS‑16 and NBS‑17 carbon dioxide reference samples: Analytical Chemistry, 54: 2611‑1612. 
 
Coplen, T.B., Kendall, C., and Hopple, J., 1983, Intercomparision of NBS and IAEA stable isotope reference samples: Nature, 302: 236‑238. 
 
Coplen, T.B., Kendall, C., and Davis, G.H., 1985, Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope measurements of ground waters of the Central West side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: U.S. Geol. Survey Open-File Report 85‑490, 21 p. 
 
Kendall, C., and Coplen, T.B., 1985, Multisample conversion of water to hydrogen by zinc for stable determination: Analytical Chemistry, 57: 1437‑1440. 
 
Kennedy, V.C., Kendall, C., Zellweger, G.W., Wyerman, T.A., and Avanzino, R.J., 1986, Determination of the components of stormflow using water chemistry and environmental isotopes, Mattole River Basin, California: Journal of Hydrology, 84: 107-140. 
 
Stallard, M.L., Winnett, T.L., Truesdell, A.H., Coplen, T.C., Kendall, C., White, L.D., Janik, C.J., and Thompson, J.M., 1987, Patterns of change in water isotopes from Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico--1977-1986: Geothermal Resources Council, Trans, 11: 203-210. 
 
Kendall, C., and Grim, E., 1990, Combustion tube method for measurement of nitrogen isotope ratios using CaO for removal of CO2 and H2O: Anal. Chem., 62: 526-529.
 
Kendall, C., and Gu, Weizu, 1992, Development of isotopically heterogeneous infiltration waters in an artificial catchment in Chuzhou, China: In: Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development 1991, p. 61-73, Proc. of IAEA symposium, Mar. 11-15, 1991, Vienna.
 
Kendall, C., Mast, A.M., and Rice, K.C., 1992, Tracing watershed weathering reactions with Delta C-13: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interactions, Park City, Utah, July 13-18, 1992, p. 569-572.
 
McDonnell, J.J., and Kendall, C., 1992, Isotope Tracers in Hydrology--Report to the Hydrology Section: EOS Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 73: 260-261. 
 
Kendall, C., 1993, Impact of Isotopic Heterogeneity in Shallow Systems on Stormflow Generation, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 310 p.
 
Krohn, M.D., Kendall, C., Evans, J.R., Fries, T., 1993, Relations of ammonium mineralization to selected hydrothermal systems of the western US: J of Vol. and Geotherm. Research, 56: 401-413.
 
Kendall, C. and McDonnell, J.J., 1993, Effect of intrastorm heterogeneities of rainfall, soil water and groundwater on runoff modeling: in Tracers in Hydrology, Proceedings of the Tracers in Hydrology Symposium, July 11-23, 1993, Yokohama, Japan; Intern. Assoc. of Hydrol. Sc. Publ. #215, p. 41-48.
 
Huntington, T.G., Hooper, R.P., Peters, N.E., Bullen, T.D., and Kendall, C., 1993, Water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets investigation at Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Stockbridge, GA--A research plan: USGS Open-File Rep. 93-55.
 
Krabbenhoft, D.P., Bowser, C.J., Kendall, C., and Gat, J.R., 1994, Use of oxygen-18 and deuterium to assess the hydrology of ground-water/lake systems, in: Baker, L.A. (ed.) Environmental Chemistry of Lakes and Reservoirs, American Chemical Society, Monograph #237, p. 67-90.
 
Gat, J.R., Bowser, C.J., and Kendall, C., 1994, The contribution of evaporation from the North American Great Lakes to the continental atmospheric water balance--detection by means of the stable isotope signature of evaporated waters: Geophysical Research Letters, 21: 557-560.
 
Shanley, J.B., Sundquist, E.T., and Kendall, C., 1994, Water, energy, and biogeochemical budget research at Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT: U.S. Open-File Report 94-475, 22 p.
 
Brammer, D.D., Brown, V.A., Houck, R.E., Kendall, C., McDonnell, J.J., and Titus, A.C., 1994. Effect of cover type on snow isotopic composition, Proceedings of the 51st Annual Eastern Snow Conference, Dearborn, MI, p. 105-114.
 
Kendall, C., Sklash, M.G., and Bullen, T.D., 1995a. Isotope tracers of water and solute sources in catchments, In: S. Trudgill (Editor), Solute Modelling in Catchment Systems, Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 261-303.
 
Kendall, C., Campbell, D.H., Burns, D.A., Shanley, J.B., Silva, S.R., Chang, C.C.Y., 1995b, Tracing sources of nitrate in snowmelt runoff using the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic compositions of nitrate: In: Tonnessen, K., Williams, M.W., and Trantor, M. (eds) Biogeochemistry of Seasonally Snow-covered Catchments, Intern. Assoc. of Hydrol. Sc. Pub., IAHS Publ. # 228, p. 339-347.
 
Shanley, J.B., Kendall, C., Albert, M.R., and Hardy, J.P., 1995. Chemical and isotopic evolution of a layered eastern U.S. snowpack and its relation to streamwater composition, In: Tonnessen, K., Williams, M.W., and Trantor, M. (eds) Biogeochemistry of Seasonally Snow-covered Catchments, Intern. Assoc. of Hydrol. Sc. Pub., IAHS Publ. # 228, p. 329-338.
 
Mast, M.A., Kendall, C., Campbell, D.H., Clow, D.W., and Back, J., 1995. Determination of hydrologic pathways in an alpine-subalpine basin using isotopic and chemical tracers, Loch Vale Watershed, Colorado, In: Tonnessen, K., Williams, M.W., and Trantor, M. (eds) Biogeochemistry of Seasonally Snow-covered Catchments, Intern. Assoc. of Hydrol. Sc. Pub., IAHS Publ. # 228, p. 263-270. 
 
Unnikrishna, P.V., McDonnell, J.J., Tarboton, D.G., and Kendall, C., 1995. Isotopic analysis of hydrologic processes in a small semiarid catchment, In: Leibundgut, D. (ed) Tracer Technologies for Hydrologic Systems, Intern. Assoc. of Hydrol. Sc. Pub., IAHS Publ. # 229, p. 295-304.
 
Unnikrishna, P.V., McDonnell, J.J., Tarboton, D.G., and Kendall, C., and Cooley, K., 1995, Stable isotope tracing as a tool for testing assumption in a grid based distributed hydrologic model. Proc. American Meteorological Society, Conference on Hydrology, p. 86‑91.
 
Kendall, C., and Krabbenhoft, D.P., 1995. Applications of isotopes to tracing sources of solutes and water in shallow systems, In: Charbeneau, R.J., (ed) Groundwater Management, proceedings of the intern. symp., August 1995, San Antonio TX, Amer. Assoc. of Civil Engin., p. 390-395.
 
Calvo, J.P., Jones, B.F., Bustillo, M., Fort, R., Alonzo-Zarza, A.M., and Kendall, C., 1995. Sedimentology and geochemistry of carbonates from lacustrine sequences in the Madrid basin, central Spain: Chemical Geology, 123: 173-191.
 
Unnikrishna, P.V., McDonnell, J.J., Tarboton, D.G., Kendall, C., and Cooley, K., 1995, Stable isotope tracing as a tool for testing assumptions in a grid based distributed hydrologic model. Proc. American Meteorological Society, Conference on Hydrology, pp. 86-91.
 
Amundson, R., Chadwick, O., Kendall, C., Wang, Y., and DeNiro, M., 1996, Isotopic evidence for shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns during the late Quaternary in mid-North America, Geology, 24: 23-26.
 
Bullen, T.D., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Kendall, C., 1996, Kinetic and mineralogic controls on the evolution of groundwater chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr in a sandy silicate aquifer, northern Wisconsin, Geochem. Cosmoch. Acta, 60: 1807-1821.
 
Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., Chang, C.C.Y., Burns, D.A.,Campbell, D.H., and Shanley, J.B., 1996. Use of the Delta 18-O and Delta 15-N of nitrate to determine sources of nitrate in early spring runoff in forested catchments, Isotopes in Water Resources Management, International Atomic Energy Agency symposium, v. 1, p. 167-176.
 
Kirchner, J.W., Hooper, R.P., Kendall, C., Neal, C., and Leavesley, G., 1996, Testing and validating environmental models, Science of the Total Environment, 183: 33-47.
 
McDonnell, J.J. Freer, J., Hooper, R., Kendall, C., Burns, D., Beven, K., 1996, New Method developed for studying flow on hillslopes. EOS article, 77(47): 465-472.
 
Hansen, D.P., Jakeman, A.J., Kendall, C., and Gu, W., 1997, Identification of internal flow dynamics in two experimental catchments, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 1380: 1-9.
 
Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Goolsby, D.A., and Boyer, L.L., 1997, Plan of study to determine if the isotopic ratios of nitrogen and oxygen can reveal the sources of nitrate discharged by the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico, Open File Rep.# 97-230, 18 pp.
 
Freer, J., McDonnell, J.J., Beven, K.J., Brammer, D., Burns, D.A., Hooper, R.P., and Kendall, C., 1997a, Topographic controls on subsurface storm flow at the hillslope scale for two hydrologically distinct small catchments, Hydrological Processes, Vol 11(9): 1347-1352.
 
Freer, J., McDonnell, J.J., Beven, K.J., Brammer, D., Burns, D.A., Hooper, R.P., and Kendall, C., 1997b, Topographic controls on subsurface storm flow at the hillslope scale for two hydrologically distinct small catchments,. Hydrological Processes, Re-published by Wiley as part of AGU Special Issue pp. 117-122.
 
Freer, J., McDonnell, J.J., Beven, K.J., Brammer, D., Burns, D.A., Hooper, R.P., and Kendall, C., 1997c, Topographic controls on subsurface storm flow at the hillslope scale for two hydrologically distinct small catchments, Advances in Hydrological Processes (Beven , K.J., ed), John Wiley and Sons, pp. 339-344. 
 
Kendall, C., Reddy, M.M., Schuster, P.F., and Evans, W.C., 1997, Applications of stable isotopes in the Shingobee River Headwaters area, WRIR #96-4215, 63-69.
 
Hunt, R.J., Bullen, T.D., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Kendall, C., 1998. Using stable isotopes of water and strontium to investigate the hydrology of a natural and a constructed wetland, Ground Water, 36: 434-443.
 
McDonnell, J.J., McGlynn, B., Kendall, K., Shanley, J., and Kendall, C., 1998. The role of near-stream riparian zones in the hydrology of steep upland catchments, in Headwater ‘98, Proceedings of the Merano Italy Conference, April 1998, IAHS publ. #248, p. 173-180.
 
Hooper, R.P., Aulenbach, B.T., Burns, D.A., McDonnell, J.J., Freer, J., Kendall, C., and Beven, K., 1998. Riparian control of streamwater chemistry: Implications for hydrochemical basin models, in Headwater ‘98, Proceedings of the Merano Italy Conference, April 1998, IAHS publ. #248, p. 451-458.
 
Kendall, C., 1998a. INVITED review of: “Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology”, by Clark and Fritz, Ground Water, 36: 550.
 
Kendall, C., and McDonnell, J.J., (eds), 1998. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier Science Publishers, 839 p., ( http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/isopubs/itchinfo.html )
 
Kendall, C., 1998b. Tracing nitrogen sources and cycling in catchments, Chapter 16, In: C. Kendall and J.J. McDonnell (Eds.), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 519-576.
 
Kendall, C. and Caldwell, E.A., 1998. Fundamentals of isotope geochemistry, Chapter 2, In: C. Kendall and J.J. McDonnell (Eds.), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 51-86.
 
Bullen, T.D., and Kendall, C., 1998. Tracing of weathering reactions and water flowpaths: a multi-isotope approach, Chapter 18, In: C. Kendall and J.J. McDonnell (Eds.), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 611-646.
 
Shanley, J., Pendall, E., Kendall, C., and many others, 1998. Isotopes as indicators of environmental change, Chapter 22, In: C. Kendall and J.J. McDonnell (Eds.), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 761-816.
 
Ferrick, M.G., Calkins, D.J., Perron, N.M., and Kendall, C., 1998. Stable environmental isotopes in lake and river ice cores, In: Hung Tao Shen (Ed) Ice in Surface Waters, International Association of Hydraulic Research (IAHR), 11th Ice Symposium, July 1998, Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 207-214.
 
Burns, D., Hooper, R.P., McDonnell, J.J., Freer, J., Kendall, C., and Beven, K., 1998. Base cation concentrations in subsurface flow from a forested hillslope: The role of flushing frequency. Water Resources Research, 34: 3535-3544.
 
McDonnell, J.J., Brammer, D., Kendall, C., Hjerdt, N., Rowe, L., Stewart, M., and Woods, R., 1999. Flow pathways on steep forested hillslopes: The tracer, tensiometer and trough approach, In: Kyoji Sassa (ed.) Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 8 Conference, Environmental Forest Science, October 19‑23, 1998, Kyoto University, Japan. Volume 54, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, p. 463‑482.
 
Brown, V.A., McDonnell, J.J., Burns, D.A., and Kendall, C., 1999. The role of event water, rapid shallow flowpaths and catchment size in summer stormflow, Journal of Hydrology (as part of Special Issue on “Scaling in Hydrology”, Alfred Becker, ed.), 217L: 171-190.
 
Kendall, C., Battaglin, W.A., Cabana, G., Porter, S.D., Goolsby, D.A., Campbell, D.H., Chang, C.C., Silva, S.R., Hooper, R.P., Schmitt, C.J., 1999, Isotopic tracing of nitrogen sources and cycling in the Mississippi River Basin, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program‑‑Proceedings of the Technical Meeting,    Charleston, South Carolina, March 8‑12, 1999‑‑Volume 2 of 3‑‑Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water‑Resources Investigations Report 99‑4018B, p. 339‑344.
 
Bergamaschi, B.A., Fram, M.S., Fujii, R., Aiken, G.R., Kendall, C., and Silva, S.R., 1999a, The carbon isotopic composition of trihalomethanes formed from chemically distinct dissolved organic carbon isolates from the Sacramento‑San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program ‑‑Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8‑12, 1999‑‑Volume 2 of 3‑‑Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water‑Resources Investigations Report 99‑4018B, p. 99‑108.
 
Bergamaschi, B.A., Fram, M.S., Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., Aiken, G.R., and Fujii, R., 1999b, Carbon isotopic constraints on the contribution of plant material to the natural precursors of trihalomethanes, Org. Geochem., 30: 835‑842.
 
McGlynn, B., McDonnell, J.J., Shanley, J., Kendall, C., 1999, Riparian zone flowpath dynamics. Journal of Hydrology, 222: 75‑92.
 
Orem, W.H., Holmes, C.W., Kendall, C., Lerch, H.E., Bates, A.L., Silva, S.R., Boylan, A., Corum, M., Marot,M., and Hedgman, C., 1999. Geochemistry of Florida Bay sediments: I. Nutrient history at five sites in eastern and central Florida Bay. J. of Coastal Research, 15: 1055-1071.
 
Chang, C.C., Langston, J., Riggs, M., Campbell, D.H., Silva, S.R., and Kendall, C., 1999. A method for nitrate collection for delta 15N and delta 18O analysis from waters with low nitrate concentrations, Can. J. of Fisheries and Aq. Sc., 56: 1856-1864.
 
Kendall, C., and Aravena, R., 2000. Nitrate isotopes in groundwater systems, Chapter 9, In: P. Cook and Herczeg, A.L. (Eds.), Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 261-297.
 
Sueker, J.K., Ryan, J.N., Kendall, C., Jarrett, R.D., 2000. Determination of hydrological pathways during snowmelt for alpine/subalpine basins, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, Water Resour. Res., 36: 63-75.
 
Bergamaschi, B.A., Fram, M.S., Fujii, R., Aiken, G.R., Kendall, C., and Silva, S.R. 2000. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources, In: Natural organic matter and disinfection by-products, S.E. Barrett, S. W. Krasner, and G. L. Amy eds., ACS Symposium Series 761, pp 206-222, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 425p.
 
Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., Wilkison, D.H., Ziegler, A.C., Chang, C.C., and Avanzino, R.J, 2000. A new method for collection of nitrate from fresh water and the analysis of nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, J. of Hydrology, 228: 22-36.
 
Coplen, T.B., and Kendall, C., 2000, Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios for selected sites of the U.S. Geological Survey's NASQAN and benchmark surface-water networks: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-160.
 
Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., Chang, C.Y., Bemis, B.E., Wankel, S.D., Dias, R.F., Garrison, P., Lange, T., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Stober, Q.J., 2000. Spatial changes in redox conditions and foodweb relations at low and high nutrient sites in the Everglades, USGS Open File Report 00-449, p. 61-63.
 
Krabbenhoft, D.P. Gilmour, C.C., Orem, W.H., Aiken, G.R., Kendall, C., Olsen, M.L., and DeWild, J., 2000. Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the Everglades (ACME) Project: Synopsis of Phase 1 studies and plans for Phase 2 studies, USGS Open File Report 00-449, p. 64-65.
 
Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., and Campbell, D.H., 2001b. Chemical and isotopic composition of organic and inorganic samples from the Mississippi River and its tributaries, 1997-98, USGS Water Resources Investigation Report 01-4095, 57 p.
 
Kendall, C., and Coplen, T.B., 2001. Distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in river waters across the United States, NASQAN Special Issue, Hydrological Processes. 15:1363-1393.
 
Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., and Kelly, V.J., 2001a. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of particulate organic matter in four large river systems across the United States, NASQAN Special Issue, Hydrological Processes. 15:1301-1346.
 
Kendall, C., McDonnell, J.J., and Gu, W., 2001b. A look inside “black box” hydrograph separation models: A study at the Hydrohill artificial catchment, US-Japan Watershed Hydrology Special Issue, Hydrologic Processes, 15:1877-1902.
 
Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., and Campbell, D.H., 2001a. Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98, NASQAN Special Issue, Hydrological Processes, 15:1285-1300.
 
Brenner, D.L., Amundson, R., Baisden, W.T., Kendall, C, and Harden, J., 2001. Soil N and 15N variation with time in a California annual grassland ecosystem. Geochim. Cosmochim.Acta, 65:4171-4186.
 
Jahren, A.H., Amundson, R., Kendall, C., and Wigand, P., 2001. Paleoclimatic reconstruction using the correlation in δ18O of hackberry carbonate and environmental water, North America. Quaternary Res., 56:252-263.
 
Burns, D.A., McDonnell, J.J., Hooper, R.P., Peters, N.E., Freer, J.E., Kendall, C., Beven, K., 2001. Quantifying contributions to storm runoff through end-member mixing analysis and hydrologic measurements at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (Georgia, USA), Hydrol. Proc., 15(10), 1903-1924.
 
Shanley, J., Kendall, C., Smith, T., Wolock, D., and McDonnell, J.J., 2002. Controls on old and new water contributions to stream flow at some nested catchments in Vermont, Hydrological Processes 16: 589-609.
 
Ferrick, M.G., Calkins, D.J., Perron, N.M., Cragin, J.H., and Kendall, C., 2002. Diffusion model validation and interpretation of stable isotopes in river and lake ice. Hydrogical Processes, 16: 851-872.
 
Fry, B., Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., and Anderson, R.K., 2002. Oxygen isotope corrections for online d34S analysis, Rapid Commun. In Mass Spectrom., 16: 854-858.
 
Burns, D.A., and Kendall, C., 2002. Analysis of d15N and δ18O to differentiate NO3- sources in runoff at two watersheds in the Catskill Mountains of New York, Water Res. Research 38: 14-1 to 14-11.
 
Campbell, D.H., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., Tonnessen, K.A., 2002, Pathways for nitrate release from an alpine watershed: determination using d15N and δ18O, Water Res. Res. 38: 9-1 to 9-11.
 
Rumbold, D.G., L.E. Fink, K.A.Laine, S.L. Niemczyk, T. Chandrasekhar, S.D. Wankel, C. Kendall. 2002. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades, Science Total Environment, 297: 239-252.
 
Chang, C.C.Y, Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., Battaglin, W.A., and Campbell, D.H.. 2002. Nitrate stable isotopes:tools for determining nitrate sources among different land uses in the Mississippi River Basin, Can. J. Fish, Aq. Sci. 59: 1874-85.
 
Baisden, W.T., R. Amundson, D.L. Brenner, A.C. Cook, C. Kendall, and J. Harden, 2002. A multiisotope C and N modeling analysis of soil organic matter turnover and transport as a function of soil depth in a California annual grassland soil chronosequence, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16: 82-1 to 82-26.
 
Amundson, A., A. T. Austin, E.A.G. Schuur, K. Yoo, V. Matzek, C. Kendall, A. Uebersax, D. Brenner, and W.T. Baisden, 2003. Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17: 31-1 to 31-10.
 
Unnikrishna, P.V., J.J. McDonnell and C. Kendall. 2002. Isotope fractionation in a melting mountain snowpack, Sierra Nevada California. Journal of Hydrology, 260: 38-57
 
Freer, J., J.J. McDonnell, K.J. Beven, N.E. Peters, D.A. Burns, R.P. Hooper, B. Aulenbach, and C. Kendall. 2002. The role of bedrock topography on subsurface storm flow. Water Resources Research, 38: 5-1 to 5-16.
 
Freer, J., J.J. McDonnell, K. Beven, D. Burns, R. Hooper, B. Aulenbach, C. Kendall and N. Peters., 2002. Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamic contributions of subsurface storm runoff at the hillslope scale. Water Resources Research, 38(12): 5-1 - 5-16.
 
Gibson, J.J., P. Aggarwal, J. Hogan, C. Kendall, L.A. Martinelli, W. Stichler, D. Rank, I. Goni, M. Choudhry, J. Gat, S. Bhattacharya, A. Sugimoto, B. Fekete, A. Pietroniro, T. Maurer, H. Panarello, D. Stone, P. Seyler, L. Maurice-Bourgoin and A. Herczeg. (2002) Isotope studies in large river basins: a new global research focus. EOS 83 (52) 24: 613, 616-617.
 
McCutchan, J.H., Lewis, W.M. Jr., Kendall, C., and McGrath, C.C. (2003) Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, Oikos, 102: 378-390.
 
Havens, K.E., Fry, B., Gu, B., and Kendall, C. (2003) Stable isotope food web analysis of a large subtropical lake – alternative explanations for 15N enrichment of pelagic vs. littoral fisheries. The ScientificWorld Journal, 3: 612-622.
 
Sickman, J.Q., Leydecker, A., Chang, C.C.Y., Kendall, C., Melack, J.M., Lucero, D.M., and Schimel, J. (2003) Mechanisms underlying export of N from high-elevation catchments during seasonal transitions, Biogeochemistry, 64: 1-24.
 
Walker, J.F., Hunt, R.J., Bullen, T.D., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Kendall, C. (2003). Variability of isotope and major ion chemistry in the Allequash Basin, Wisconsin. Ground Water, 41: 883-894.
 
Burns, D.A., Plummer, L.N., McDonnell, J.J., Busenberg, E., Casile, G.C., Kendall, C., Hooper, R.P., Freer, J.E., Peters, N.E., Bevens, K., and Schlosser, P. (2003). The geochemical evolution of riparian ground water in a forested Piedmont Catchment. Ground Water, 41: 913-925.
 
Shanley, J.B., Hjerdt, K.N., McDonnell, J.J., and Kendall, C. (2003). Shallow water table fluctuations in relation to soil penetration resistance. Ground Water, 41: 964-972.
 
Kratzer, C.R., Dileanis, P.D., Zamora, C., Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., Bergamaschi, B.A., and Dahlgren, R.A. (2003). Sources and transport of nutrients, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a in the San Joaquin River upstream of Vernalis, California, during summer and fall, 2000 and 2001, USGS WRI 03-4127. online: http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/wri/wri034127/ .
 
Kendall, C., and Doctor, D.H. (2004) Stable isotope applications in Hydrologic Studies, in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface and ground water, weathering, and soils: Treatise on Geochemistry, v. 5, chapter 11, p. 319-364.
 
McLaughlin, K., Silva, S., Kendall, C., Stuart-Williams, H., and Paytan, A. (2004), A precise method for the analysis of d18O of dissolve inorganic phosphate in seawater, Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 2: 202–212.
 
Pardo, L.H., Kendall, C., PettRidge, J., and Chang, C.C.Y. (2004), Evaluating the source of streamwater nitrate using d15N and d18O in nitrate in two watersheds in New Hampshire, USA: Hydrological Processes: 18, 2,699-2,712.
 
Ohte, N., Sebestyen, S.D., Shanley, J.B., Doctor, D.H., Kendall, C., Wankel, S.D., and Boyer, E.W. (2004), Tracing sources of nitrate in snowmelt runoff using a high-resolution isotopic technique, Geophysical Research Letters, 31: L21506.
 
McGlynn, B, McDonnell, J.J., Seibert, J, and Kendall, C. (2004). Scale effects on headwater catchment runoff timing, flow sources, and groundwater-streamflow relations: Water Resources Research, v. 40, no. 7.
 
Horita, J. & Kendall, C. (2004). Stable isotope analysis of water and aqueous solutions by conventional dual-inlet mass spectrometry. In: Handbook of stable isotope analytical techniques, Volume-I. De Groot, P.A. (ed.). Elsevier: 1-37. [ISBN: 0 444 51114 8]
 
Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., Michalski, G., Casciotti, K.L. & Wankel, S. (2004). Preparation and analysis of nitrogen-bearing compounds in water for stable isotope ratio measurement. In: Handbook of stable isotope analytical techniques, Volume-I. De Groot, P.A. ed.). Elsevier: 305-347. [ISBN: 0 444 51114 8]
 
Bemis, B.E., and Kendall, C. (2004). Isotopic Views of Food Web Structure in the Florida Everglades, USGS Fact Sheet, FS 2004-3138.
 
McGuire, K.J., McDonnell, J.J., Weiler, M., Kendall, C., McGlynn, B.L., Welker, J.M., and Seibert, J. (2005). The role of topography on catchment-scale water residence time, Water Resources Research, 41, W05002, doi:10.1029/2004WR003657.
 
Piatek, K.B., Mitchell, M.J., Silva, S.R., and Kendall, C. (2005) Sources of nitrate in Adirondack surface waters during dissimilar snowmelt events. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 165: 13 – 35.
 
Michalski, G., Bockheim, J.G., Kendall, C., and Thiemens, M. (2005) Isotopic composition of Antarctic Dry Valley nitrate: Implications for NOx sources and cycling in Antarctica. JGR Let., 32: L13817, 4 p. doi:10.1029/2004GL022121.
 
Burns, D., Vitvar, T., McDonnell, J., Hassett, J., Duncan, J. and Kendall, C. (2005) Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River Basin, New York, USA . Journal of Hydrology 311: 266–281.
 
Shanley, J.B., Mayer, B., Mitchell, M.J., Michel, R.L., Bailey, S.W., and Kendall, C. (2005) Tracing sources of streamwater sulfate during snowmelt using S and O isotope ratios of sulfate and 35S activity, Biogeochemistry 76: 161–185.
 
McLaughlin, K., Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., and Paytan, A. (2006) Oxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds - Application for marine particulate matter, sediments and soils, Marine Chemistry: 98, 148-155.
 
Paulson, A.J., Konrad, C.P., Frans, L.M., Noble, M.A., Kendall, Carol, Josberger, E.G., Huffman, R.L., and Olsen, T.D. (2006) Freshwater and saline loads of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, western Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5106, 91 p. http://sun3dwatcm.wr.usgs.gov/water.usgs.gov/sir20065106/
 
Nardoto, G.B., Silva, S., Kendall, C., Ehleringer, J.R., Chesson, L.A., Ferraz, E.S.B., Moreira, M.Z., Ometto, J.P.H.B., and Martinelli, L.A. (2006) Geographical patterns of human diet derived from stable-isotope analysis of fingernails, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 131: 137-146, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20409
 
Reddy, M.M., Schuster, P., Kendall, C., and Reddy, M.B. (2006) Characterization of surface water and ground water δ18O seasonal variation and its use for estimating groundwater residence times, Hydrological Processes, 20: 1753-1772.
 
Mitchell, M.J. K.B. Piatek, S. Christopher, B. Mayer, C. Kendall and P. McHale. (2006) Solute sources in stream water during consecutive fall storms in a northern hardwood forest watershed: a combined hydrological, chemical and isotopic approach. Biogeochemistry 78: 217-246.
 
McLaughlin, K., C. Kendall, S. R. Silva, M. Young, and A. Paytan (2006), Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G03003, doi:10.1029/2005JG000079.
 
Wankel, S.D., Kendall, C., Francis, C.A., Paytan, A. (2006) Nitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition approach, L&O, 51(4): 1654–1664.
 
Reddy, M.M., Schuster, P., Kendall, C., and Reddy, M.B. (2006) Reply to Comment on ‘Characterization of surface and ground water d18O seasonal variation and its use for estimating groundwater residence times,’ by R.E. Criss and W.E. Winston, Hydrological Processes 20: 3573-78.
 
Ruehl, C., Fisher, A. T., Los Huertos, M., Wankel, S., Kendall, C., Hatch, C., and Shennan, C. (2007) Nitrate dynamics within the Pajaro River, a nutrient-rich, losing stream, J. N. Am. Benthological Soc. 26: 191-206.
 
Wankel, S.D., Kendall, C., Pennington, J.T., Chavez, F.P., and Paytan, A. (2007) Nitrification in the euphotic zone as evidenced by nitrate dual isotopic composition: Observations from Monterey Bay, California, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB2009, doi:10.1029/2006GB002723.
 
Elliott, E.M., Kendall, C., Wankel, S.D., Burns, D.A., Boyer, E.W., Harlin, K., Bain, D.J., & Butler, T.J. (2007) Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of NOx source contributions to atmospheric nitrate deposition across the midwestern and northeastern United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 7661-7667.
 
Kendall, C., Elliott, E.M., and Wankel, S.D. (2007) Tracing anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to ecosystems, Chapter 12, In: R.H. Michener and K. Lajtha (Eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science, 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing, p. 375-449.
 
Finlay, J.C., and Kendall, C. (2007) Stable isotope tracing of temporal and spatial variability in organic matter sources to freshwater ecosystems, Chapter 10, In: R.H. Michener and K. Lajtha (Eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science, 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing, p. 283-333.
 
Ohte N., Dahlgren R. A., Silva S. R., Kendall C., Kratzer C. R. & Doctor, D. H. (2007) Sources and transport of algae and nutrients in a Californian river in a semi-arid climate. Freshwater Biology 52: 2476-2493, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01849.x.
 
Derse E, K Knee, SD Wankel, C Kendall, CJ Berg and A. Paytan. (2007) Identifying the sources of nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai utilizing the nitrogen isotope signature of macroalgae. Environmental Science and Technology. 41(15): 5217-5223.
 
Ewing SA, G Michalski, M Thiemens, RC Quinn, JL Macalady, S Kohl, SD Wankel, C Kendall, CP McKay, and R Amundson. (2007). The rainfall limit of the nitrogen cycle on earth. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 21(3): 10.1029/2006GB002838.
 
Eckard, R.S., Hernes P.J., Bergamaschi, B.A., Stepanauskas, R., and Kendall, C. (2007) Landscape scale controls on the vascular plant component of dissolved organic carbon across a freshwater delta, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71: 5968–5984.
 
Ewing, S.A., Yang, W., DePaolo, D.J., Michalski, G., Kendall, C., Stewart, B., Thiemens, M., and Amundson, R. (2008) Non-biological fractionation of stable Ca isotopes in soils of the Atacama Desert, Chile, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72/4: 1096-1110, DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.10.029.
 
Christopher, S.F., Mitchell, M.J., McHale, M.R., Boyer, E.W., Burns, D.A., Kendall, C. (2008), Factors controlling nitrogen release from two forested catchments with contrasting hydrochemical responses, in press, Hydrological Processes, 22: 46-62.
 
Ohte, N., and Kendall, C. (2008) Impacts of hydrological characteristics on water quality of semiarid river in California, Journal of Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources (published in Japanese), 21 (1): 57-63.
 
Doctor, D.H., Kendall, C., Sebestyen, S.D., Shanley, J.B., Ohte, N., and Boyer, E.W. (2008). Carbon isotope fractionation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) due to outgassing of carbon dioxide from a headwater stream, Hydrol. Process. 22, #14, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6833.
 
Sebestyen, S. D., E. W. Boyer, J. B. Shanley, C. Kendall, D. H. Doctor, G. R. Aiken, and N. Ohte (2008), Sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that control stream nitrate and dissolved organic matter concentrations during snowmelt in an upland forest, Water Resour. Res., 44, W12410, doi:101029/2008WR006983.
 
Domagalski, J.L, Phillips, S.P., Bayless, R.E., Zamora, C., Kendall, C., Wildman, R., and Hering, J. (2008) Influences of the unsaturated, saturated, and riparian zones on the transport of nitrate near the Merced River, California. Hydrogeology Journal 16: 675–690, DOI 10.1007/s10040-007-0266-x.
 
Hinckley ES, Kendall C, Loague K (2008) Not all water becomes wine: sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards. Water Resour Res 44: W00401, doi:10.1029/2007WR006672.
 
Nanus, L., Williams, M.W., Campbell, D.H., Elliott, E.M., and Kendall, C. (2008) Evaluating regional patterns in nitrogen sources to watersheds in National Parks of the Rocky Mountains using nitrate isotopes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42: 6487–6493. 
 
Kraus, T.E.C, Bergamaschi, B.A., Hernes, P.J., Spencer, R.G.M., Stepanauskas, R., Kendall, C., Losee, R.F., and Fujii, R., (2008) Assessing the contribution of wetlands and subsided islands to dissolved organic matter and disinfection byproduct precursors in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta: A geochemical approach, Organic Geochemistry 39: 1302–1318, 
J. Geophys Res., 114, G01011, doi:10.1029/2008JG000729.
 
Pellerin, B.A., Downing, B.D., Kendall, C., Dahlgren, R.A., Kraus, T.E.C., Saraceno, J., Spencer, R.G.M., and Bergamaschi, B.A., (2009) Assessing the sources and magnitude of diurnal nitrate variability in the San Joaquin River (California) with an in-situ optical nitrate sensor and dual nitrate isotopes, Freshwater Biology 54: 376–387, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.02111.x.  
 
Elsbury­ K.E., Paytan A, Kendall C, Young MB, McLaughlin K, Rollog ME, and Watson S (2009) Using oxygen isotopes of phosphate to trace phosphorus sources and cycling in Lake Erie. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43: 3108–3114. 
 
Burns DA, Boyer EW, Elliott EM, and Kendall C (2009) Sources and transformations of nitrate from streams draining varying land uses: Evidence from dual isotope analysis. J. Environ. Qual. 38: 1149-1159. 
 
Bowen GJ, West JB, Vaughn BH, Dawson TE, Ehleringer JR, Fogel ML, Hobson K, Hoogewerff J, Kendall C, Lai C-T, Miller CC, Noone D, Schwarcz H, and Still CJ (2009) Isoscapes to address large-scale earth science challenges, Eos, 90 (13): 109-110.
 
Young MB, McLaughlin K, Kendall C, Stringfellow WT, Rollog ME, Elsbury KE, Donald E, and Paytan A. (2009) Characterizing the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate sources to aquatic ecosystems. Environ. Sci. Technol. DOI: 10.1021/es900337q.
 
Wankel SD, Chen Y, Kendall C, Post AF, and Paytan A (2009) Sources of aerosol nitrate to the Gulf of Aqaba: Evidence from δ15N and δ18O of nitrate and trace metal chemistry. Marine Chemistry doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2009.01.013
 
Elliott, E.M., Kendall, C., Boyer, E.W., Burns, D.A., Lear, G.G., Golden, H.E., Harlin, K., Bytnerowicz, A., Butler, T.J., and Glatz, R. (2009) Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source contributions to landscape nitrogen deposition: Journal of Geophysical Research G: Biogeosciences, v. 114, no. 4, G04020, doi:10.1029/2008JG000889.
 
Rosenbauer, R.J., Swarzenski, P.W., Kendall, C., Orem, W.H., Hostettler, F.D., and Rollog, M.E., 2009, A carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur elemental and isotopic study in dated sediment cores from the Louisiana Shelf: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 29, no. 6, 415-429.
 
Wankel, S.D., Chen, Y., Kendall, C., Post, A.F., Paytan, A. (2010) Sources of aerosol nitrate to the Gulf of Aqaba: Evidence from δ15N and δ18O of nitrate and trace metal chemistry: Marine Chemistry, 120: 90-99.
 
Zohar, I. , Shaviv, A. , Young, M. , Kendall, C. , Silva, S., and Paytan, A. (2010) Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate: Geoderma. 159: 109-121.
 
Gu, W.-Z., Shang, M.-T., Zhai, S.-Y., Lu, J.-J., Frentress, J., McDonnell, J., and Kendall, C., (2010) Rainfall-runoff paradox from a natural experimental catchment: Shuikexue Jinzhan/Advances in Water Science, 21: 471-478.
 
Kendall, C., Young, M.B, Silva, S.R. (2010) Applications of stable isotopes for regional to national-scale water quality monitoring programs. In: West, J.B., G.J. Bowen, T.E. Dawson, K.P. Tu (Eds,), Isoscapes: Understanding movement, pattern, and process on Earth through isotope mapping. West, J.B., G.J. Bowen, T.E. Dawson, K.P. Tu (eds).Isotope Mapping, Springer, 487 Publ., p. 89-111.
 
Kaushal , S.S., Groffman , P.M., Band , L.E., Elliott , E.M., Shields, C.A., and Kendall , C., (2011) Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds: Environ. Sci. Technol., 45 (19), pp 8225–8232.
 
Kendall, C., and Doctor, D.H. (2011) Stable isotope applications in Hydrologic Studies, in Holland, H.D., and Turekian, K.K., eds., Isotope Geochemistry: A derivative of the Treatise on Geochemistry, p. 181-226, Elsevier.
 
Kraus, T.E.C., B.A. Bergamaschi, P.J. Hernes, D. Doctor, C. Kendall, B.D. Downing & R.F. Losee. (2011) How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations, Lake and Reservoir Management, 27:3, 205-219.
 
Volkmar, E.C., Dahlgren, R.A., Stringfellow, W.T., Henson, S.S., Borglin, S.E., Kendall, C., and Van Nieuwenhuyse, E.E. (2011) Using Lagrangian sampling to study water quality during downstream transport in the San Luis Drain, California, USA: Chemical Geology, 283: 68-77.
 
Coupe, R.H., Goolsby, D.A, Battaglin, W.A., Böhlke, J.K., McMahon, P.B., Kendall, C. (2013) The transport of nitrate in the Mississippi River in July-August 1999. Annals of Environmental Science, 7: 31-46.
 
Verburg, K., and Kendall, C. (2013) Forensics in water quality investigations: Isotopic multi-tracer approaches. Proceedings of a CSIRO OCE Cutting Edge Science Symposium. CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country Flagship, Australia, 74p. https://publications.csiro.au/rpr/pub?pid=csiro:EP133707
 
McLaughlin, K., Young, M.B., Paytan, A., and Kendall, C. (2013) The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate: a tracer for phosphate sources and cycling. Application of Isotope Techniques for Assessing Nutrient Dynamics in River Basins. IAEA-TECDOC-1695 (ISBN: 978-92-0-138810-0), 93-110.
 
Kendall, C., Doctor, D.H., and Young, M.B. (2013) Environmental Isotope Applications in Hydrologic Studies, in Drever, J.I., Ed., Surface and ground water, weathering, and soils:  Treatise on Geochemistry, vol 5, Elsevier, in press.



                           

My Science Topics


Science Topic
Subtopic
Ecology and Environmentaquatic ecosystems
Ecology and Environmentecological processes
Ecology and Environmentenvironmental assessment
Ecology and Environmentestuarine ecosystems
Ecology and Environmentfreshwater ecosystems
Ecology and Environmenthabitat alteration
Ecology and Environmenthabitats
Ecology and Environmentwetlands
Hydrologic Processeswater cycle
Techniques and Methodsisotopic analysis
Techniques and Methodslaboratory methods
Geographic Analysis and Mappingspatial analysis
Water Resourcesestuaries
Water Resourcesground-water quality
Water Resourcessurface water quality
Water Resourceswater budget
Water Resourceswater quality
Environmental Issuescontamination and pollution
Environmental Issuesground-water quality
Environmental Issueshuman impacts
Environmental Issuesland use
Environmental Issuesland use change
Environmental Issuesnonpoint-source pollution
Environmental Issuessurface water quality
Environmental Issueswater quality
Geologic Processesgeochemistry
Geologic Processeswater chemistry
Natural Hazardsalgal blooms
Natural Resourceswater resources
Plants and Animalsaquatic vegetation
Plants and Animalsendangered species
Plants and Animalsinvasive species



My USGS Science Strategy Areas

A Water Census of the United States

Climate Variability & Change

The Role of Environment and Wildlife in Human Health

Understanding Ecosystems & Predicting Ecosystems Change

A National Hazard, Risk, and Resilience Assessment Program

Environmental Isotope Biogeochemistry and Hydrology

My research specialties are:

Tracing sources of nitrate and organic matter in aquatic systems using a multi-isotope approach.

Investigating biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems using a multi-isotope approach.

Piggybacking environmental isotope studies onto state and federal water quality, air quality, and ecological monitoring problems.

Methods development.


Contact Information

Carol Kendall
Bldg 15, McKelvey Building, 345 Middlefield Road
Menlo Park, CA 94025-3561
ckendall@usgs.gov
650-329-4576
650-329-5590 - Fax
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