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Allen Shapiro

Hydrologist

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Short Biography

Characterizing Groundwater Flow and Chemical Transport in Fractured Rock and Karst Aquifers

Dr. Allen Shapiro is a Senior Research Hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). He is a member of the USGSNational Research Program (NRP), conducting researchon groundwater flow and chemical transport in fractured rock and karst environments.Dr. Shapiro’s research has focused on the development of field techniques and equipment, and methods of integrating and interpreting geologic, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical information in the characterization of fractured rock aquifers. Dr. Shapiro has described fundamental processes of ground water flow and chemical transportthat are unique to geologic environments characterized by significant heterogeneity. He has also investigated the effect of scale on the hydraulic and transport properties of fractured rock through carefully designed testing and modeling investigations conducted over physical dimensions of meters to kilometers. Dr. Shapirois currently active in the characterization and remediation of various contaminants in fractured rock, including groundwater contamination by Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs).



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Publications

Shapiro, A.M., 2011, The challenge of interpreting environmental tracer concentrations in fractured rock and carbonate aquifers: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 19, no. 1, p. 9-12, DOI 10.1007/s10040-010-0678-x. [Link]

Wellman, T.P., Shapiro, A.M., and Hill, M.C., 2009, Effects of Simplifying Fracture Network Representation on Inert Chemical Migration in Fracture-Controlled Aquifers, Water Resources Research, v. 45, W01416, doi:10.1029/2008WR007025. [Link]

Gebrekristos, R.A., Shapiro, A.M., and Usher, B.H., 2008, In situ estimation of the effective chemical diffusion coefficient of a rock matrix in a fractured aquifer: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 16, no. 4, p. 629-639. DOI: 0.1007/s10040-007-0255-0. [Link]

Shapiro, A.M., Renken, R.A., Harvey, R.W., Zygnerski, M.R., and Metge, D.W., 2008, Pathogen and Chemical Transport in the Karst Limestone of the Biscayne Aquifer: 2. Chemical Retention from Diffusion and Slow Advection , Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W08430, doi:10.1029/2007WR006059. [Link]

Renken, R.A., Cunningham, K.J., Shapiro, A.M., Harvey, R.W., Zygnerski, M.R., Metge, D.W., and Wacker, M.A., 2008, Pathogen and Chemical Transport in the Karst Limestone of the Biscayne Aquifer: 1. Revised Conceptualization of Groundwater Flow: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W08429, doi:10.1029/2007WR006058. [Link]

Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Shapiro, A.M., Renken, R.A., Osborn, C.L., Ryan, J.N., Cunningham, K.J., and Landkamer, L., 2008, Pathogen and Chemical Transport in the Karst Limestone of the Biscayne Aquifer: 3. Use of Microspheres to Estimate the Transport Potential of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W08431, doi:10.1029/2007WR006060. [Link]

Winston, Richard B.; Shapiro, Allen M., 2007. BAT3 Analyzer: Real-Time Data Display and Interpretation Software for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3). Geological Survey (U.S.) Open-File Report 2007-1105, v, 65 p. [Link]

Shapiro, Allen M., 2007. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3). Geological Survey (U.S.) Open-File Report 2007-1134, ix, 127 p. [Link]

Goode, Daniel J., Tiedeman, Claire R., Lacombe, Pierre J., Imbrigiotta, Thomas E., Shapiro, Allen M., and Chapelle, Francis H., 2007, Contamination in Fractured-Rock Aquifers - Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3074, 2 p. [Link]

Shapiro, A.M., Hsieh, P.A., Burton, W.C., and Walsh, G.J., 2007, Integrated multi-scale characterization of ground water flow and chemical transport in fractured crystalline rock at the Mirror Lake Site, New Hampshire, in Hyndman, D.W., Day-Lewis, F.D., and Singha, K., eds., Subsurface Hydrology: Data Integration for Properties and Processes: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph Series, v. 171, p. 201–225. [Link]

Shapiro, A.M., 2007, Publishing our "ugly babies": Ground Water, v. 45, p. 655. [Link]

Renken, R.A., Cunningham, K.J., Zygnerski, M.R., Wacker, M.A., Shapiro, A.M., Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Osborn, C.L., and Ryan, J.N., 2005, Assessing the vulnerability of a municipal well field to contamination in a karst aquifer: Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, v.11, no.4, p.319-331. [Link]

Greene, Earl A.; Shapiro, Allen M.; LaMotte, Andrew E., 2004. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water discharge to the Washington METRO subway tunnel near the Medical Center station and Crossover, Montgomery County, Maryland. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4294, v, 33 p. : col. ill., col. maps ; 28 cm. [Link]

Becker, M.W., Collins, S.A., Metge, D.W., Harvey, R.W., and Shapiro, A.M., 2004, Effect of cell physicochemical characteristics and motility on bacterial transport in groundwater: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 69, nos. 3-4, p. 195-213. [Link]

Wood, W.W., Kraemer, T.F., and Shapiro, A., 2004, Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: A diffusion/ion exchange model: Ground Water, v. 42, p. 552-567. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2004, Borehole Testing System: Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent Number 6,761,062, 12 p. [Link]

Becker, M. W., Metge, D. W., Collins, S. A., Shapiro, A. M., and Harvey, R. W., 2003, Bacterial transport experiments in fractured crystalline Bedrock, Ground Water, v. 41, no. 5, p. 682-689. [Link]

Becker, M. W., and Shapiro, A. M., 2003, Interpreting tracer breakthrough tailing from different forced-gradient tracer experiments configurations in fractured bedrock, Water Resources Research, v. 39, no. 1, 1024, doe:10.1029/2001WR001190. [Link]

Shapiro, Allen M., 2002. Fractured-rock aquifers, understanding an increasingly important source of water. Fact Sheet 112-02, 2 p. [Link]

Ellefsen, K. J., Hsieh, P. A., and Shapiro, A. M., 2002, Crosswell seismic investigation of hydraulically conductive, fractured bedrock near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 50, p. 299-317. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2002, Cautions and suggestions for geochemical sampling in fractured rock, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 22, no. 3, p. 151-164. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2001. Characterizing ground-water chemistry and hydraulic properties of fractured-rock aquifers using the multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3). Fact Sheet 075-01, 4 p. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2001, Effective matrix diffusion in kilometer-scale transport in fractured crystalline rock, Water Resources Research, v. 37, no. 3, p. 507-522. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., and Oki, D. S., 2000, Estimating formation properties from early-time oscillatory water levels in a pumped well, Journal of Hydrology, v. 236, no. 1-2, p. 91-108. [Link]

Becker, M. W., and Shapiro, A. M., 2000, Tracer transport in fractured crystalline rock—Evidence of nondiffusive breakthrough tailing, Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 7, p. 1677-1686. [Link]

Greene, E. A.; Shapiro, A. M.; Carter, J. M., 1999. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers near Spearfish, South Dakota. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ; Branch of Information Services [distributor], Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4156, v, 64 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.

Ellefson, K. J.; Kibler, J. E.; Hsieh, P. A.; Shapiro, A. M. , 1998. Crosswell seismic tomography at the USGS fractured rock research site data collection, data processing, and tomograms. U.S. Geological Survey : [Books and Open-file Reports Section, distributor], Open-File Report 98-510, 1 computer laser optical disc :ill. (some col.), map ;4 3/4 in., in plastic box (13 x 15 x 1 cm.)

Shapiro, A. M., Oki, D. S., and Greene, 1998, Estimating formation properties from early-time recovery in wells subject to turbulent head losses, Journal of Hydrology, v. 208, no. 3-4, p. 223-236. [Link]

Rosenberry, D. O., Bukaveckas, P. A., Buso, D. C., Likens, G. E., Shapiro, A. M., and Winter, T. C., 1998, Movement of road salt to a small New Hampshire lake, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, v. 109, no. 1-4, p. 179-206. [Link]

Greene, E. A., and Shapiro, A. M., 1998, AIRSLUG: A FORTRAN Program for the Computation of Type Curves to Estimate Transmissivity and Storativity from Prematurely Terminated Air-Pressurized Slug Tests, Ground Water, v. 36, no. 2, p. 373-376. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., and Hsieh, P. A., 1998, How good are estimates of transmissivity from slug tests in fractured rock? Ground Water, v. 36, no. 1, p. 37-48. [Link]

Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M., 1997. A Graphical-User Interface for the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA Code using Argus ONE (for Simulation of Variable-Density Saturated-Unsaturated Ground-Water Flow with Solute or Energy Transport). U.S. Geological Survey ; U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Services [distributor], Open-File Report 97-421, 106 p. :ill. ;28 cm. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M.; Margolin, Joshua; Dolev, Shahar; Ben-Israel, Yaacov , 1997. A Graphical-User Interface for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW-96) using Argus Numerical Environments. U.S. Geological Survey ; Branch of Information Services [distributor], Open-File Report 97-121, vi, 50 p. :ill. ;28 cm.

Shapiro, Allen M.; Hsieh, P. A.; Winter, Thomas C., 1995. The Mirror Lake fractured-rock research site; a multidisciplinary research effort in characterizing ground-water flow and chemical transport in fractured rock. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 138-95, 1 sheet : ill., maps ; 28 cm. ill., maps ;

Shapiro, A. M., and Greene, E. A., 1995, Interpretation of prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests, Ground Water, v. 33. no. 4, p. 539-546. [Link]

Torgersen, T., Drenkard, S., Stute, M., Schlosser, P., and Shapiro, A. M., 1995, Mantle helium in ground waters of eastern North America: Time and space constraints on sources, Geology, v. 23, no. 8, p. 675-678. [Link]




A complete list of publications is provided in the CV.



My USGS Science Strategy Areas

A Water Census of the United States

The Role of Environment and Wildlife in Human Health

Fate, Transport, and Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Fractured Rock Aquifers

Image of Current Focus for Fate, Transport, and Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Fractured Rock Aquifers

Contamination of groundwater with chlorinated solvents represents one of the most vexing problems faced by groundwater managers at government and industrial facilities, and local communities (such as in the vicinity of dry cleaning establishments). The properties of chlorinated solvents result in complex distributions in the groundwater, especially in heterogeneous geologic setting such as fractured rock aquifers. Chlorinated solvents are known carcinogensthat can diffuseinto thegroundwater. The contaminants in the groundwater of fractures can diffuse into the immobile groundwater in the primary porosity of the rock, resulting in extrmely long residence times and difficulty in designing effective groundwater remediation strategies.

The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting research on the fate, transport, and the evaluation of remediation technology for groundwater contamination by chlorinated solvents in fractured rock aquifers. One of the focal points of this research is the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ. http://toxics.usgs.gov/sites/nawc_page.html

Additional information on the characterization of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock is available at http://toxics.usgs.gov/investigations/fracrock_aquifers.html


Additional Biographical Information

External Positions:

Member Edwards Aquifer Science Advisory Panel, San Antonio, TX (2006 to present)

Member National Research Council Committee on Future Option for Management in the Nation’s Subsurface Remediation Effort (2010 - 2012)

Member National Research Council Committee on Subsurface Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rocks (2013 to present)

Board of Directors (elected), Scientists and Engineers Division, National Ground Water Association (2010 to present)

Editorial Positions:

Associate Editor, Journal of Hydrology (1985-1989)

Associate Editor, Ground Water (1999 to present)

Patents Held:

Shapiro, A. M., 2004, Borehole Testing System: Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent Number 6,761,062, 12 p.

Honors and Awards:

  • Superior Service Award, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1992.
  • American Geophysical Union Citation for Excellence in Reviewing, 1999.
  • Meritorious Service Award, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2000.
  • National Ground Water Association (NGWA) 2004 Distinguished Darcy Lecturer
  • Geological Society of America (GSA) Fellow, 2009

Membership in Professional Societies:

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

National Ground Water Association (NGWA), Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers (AGWSE)

International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH)

Phi Beta Kappa - National Academic Honor Society

Tau Beta Pi - National Engineering Honor Society


Contact Information

Allen Shapiro
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA 20192-0002
ashapiro@usgs.gov
703-648-5884
703-648-5274 - Fax
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